Chemistry, which involves studying the structure of molecules and the principles that control their interactions, closely interacts with the fields of biology, physics, and mathematics. The organic chemical industries, encompassing petroleum refining and processing, agrochemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, paints and coatings, and the food conglomerates, stand among the largest industries worldwide.The functioning of an organic molecule, encompassing its physical behavior and involvement in chemical reactions, is determined by its structure, both electronic and spatial. Among various applications, heterocyclic compounds hold significant importance in medicinal chemistry, leading to extensive exploration and advancements in heterocyclic chemistry and methods. Discussions of biological, medical, and industrial applications of organic chemistry are featured in every section.
In organic molecules, functional groups serve as the reactive sites. The majority of these groups have atoms with the ability to exhibit electrophilic or nucleophilic behavior, often due to the existence of polar bonds. Similar to acids and bases, electrophiles and nucleophiles are species that are mutually attracted to each other, and their interactions play a crucial role in governing the behavior of most organic systems. Electrophiles function as electron-pair acceptors, whereas nucleophiles function as electron-pair donors.
The concept of "Featured Theme Series" pertains to a collection of chemical reactions or technologies characterized by their distinct attributes and crucial significance within a particular theme or field. These reactions or techniques hold considerable practical applications and play a vital role in addressing specific challenges or accomplishing well-defined objectives within the specified subject area.
Organic chemistry thrives as a dynamic and fiercely competitive discipline. Over time, chemists have unveiled an array of organic reactions, among which a special category has emerged, known as organic name reactions, named in honor of their pioneering chemists. These organic name reactions are intrinsic to organic chemistry and hold a pivotal role in its foundation. Interestingly, many Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry have been recognized for their discoveries of these exceptional reactions. For those aiming to flourish in the field, mastering the application of organic name reactions becomes a hallmark of proficiency.
One of the two fundamental requirements of a practicing organic chemist is the capability to transform one functional group into another, with the other being the ability to establish carbon-carbon bonds. Almost every synthesis of organic compounds necessitates, at some point in the process, the interconversion of at least one functional group. In this regard, we have provided examples of reactions involving major functional groups in organic chemistry, such as alkenes, halides, alcohols, and carbonyl compounds, categorized under headings that provide insight into the type of reaction.
Natural proteins are primarily composed of 20 different standard amino acids, these 20 amino acids can be categorized based on the structure of their side chain groups and also into four groups based on the charge and polarity of their side chains. The first category consists of hydrophobic amino acids, also known as non-polar amino acids. The second category comprises polar amino acids. The third category consists of basic amino acids. The fourth category encompasses acidic amino acids.Amino acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, acting as precursors for the synthesis of hormones, neurotransmitters, and nucleotides. Moreover, they serve as essential components of enzymes and receptors, contributing to enzymatic catalysis and signal transduction.