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Product Details of [ 56-81-5 ]

CAS No. :56-81-5 MDL No. :MFCD00004722
Formula : C3H8O3 Boiling Point : -
Linear Structure Formula :- InChI Key :PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
M.W : 92.09 Pubchem ID :753
Synonyms :
Trihydroxypropane;Glycerin;NSC 9230;Synthetic glycerine;Citifluor AF 2;Propanetriol;Optim;Osmoglyn;Glycerolum;Glyceritol
Chemical Name :Propane-1,2,3-triol

Calculated chemistry of [ 56-81-5 ]

Physicochemical Properties

Num. heavy atoms : 6
Num. arom. heavy atoms : 0
Fraction Csp3 : 1.0
Num. rotatable bonds : 2
Num. H-bond acceptors : 3.0
Num. H-bond donors : 3.0
Molar Refractivity : 20.02
TPSA : 60.69 Ų

Pharmacokinetics

GI absorption : High
BBB permeant : No
P-gp substrate : No
CYP1A2 inhibitor : No
CYP2C19 inhibitor : No
CYP2C9 inhibitor : No
CYP2D6 inhibitor : No
CYP3A4 inhibitor : No
Log Kp (skin permeation) : -8.11 cm/s

Lipophilicity

Log Po/w (iLOGP) : 0.45
Log Po/w (XLOGP3) : -1.76
Log Po/w (WLOGP) : -1.67
Log Po/w (MLOGP) : -1.51
Log Po/w (SILICOS-IT) : -0.96
Consensus Log Po/w : -1.09

Druglikeness

Lipinski : 0.0
Ghose : None
Veber : 0.0
Egan : 0.0
Muegge : 2.0
Bioavailability Score : 0.55

Water Solubility

Log S (ESOL) : 0.83
Solubility : 622.0 mg/ml ; 6.76 mol/l
Class : Highly soluble
Log S (Ali) : 1.0
Solubility : 922.0 mg/ml ; 10.0 mol/l
Class : Highly soluble
Log S (SILICOS-IT) : 1.08
Solubility : 1110.0 mg/ml ; 12.0 mol/l
Class : Soluble

Medicinal Chemistry

PAINS : 0.0 alert
Brenk : 0.0 alert
Leadlikeness : 1.0
Synthetic accessibility : 1.31

Safety of [ 56-81-5 ]

Signal Word:Warning Class:N/A
Precautionary Statements:P264-P337+P313-P305+P351+P338 UN#:N/A
Hazard Statements:H319 Packing Group:N/A
GHS Pictogram:

Application In Synthesis of [ 56-81-5 ]

* All experimental methods are cited from the reference, please refer to the original source for details. We do not guarantee the accuracy of the content in the reference.

  • Upstream synthesis route of [ 56-81-5 ]
  • Downstream synthetic route of [ 56-81-5 ]

[ 56-81-5 ] Synthesis Path-Upstream   1~160

  • 1
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Reference: [1] Analytical Chemistry, 1999, vol. 71, # 13, p. 2301 - 2306
  • 2
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  • [ 611-33-6 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
70% Microwave irradiation General procedure: A mixture of aromatic amine (1.0 mmol), glycerol (3.0 mmol), and Brönsted acidic ionic liquid BAIL (1.5 mmol) in a closed glass vial was heated using a GE model JE635WW microwave oven, at full power (920W) in five 20 s pulses giving 5 s cooling time between the pulses. Then cooled reaction mixture was diluted with water (30 mL), basified with 0.5 M aqueous sodium hydroxide and steam distilled. The distillate was extracted with methylene chloride (3X 6 mL). Combined organic layer was dried and chromatographed on silica, eluting with methylene chloride gave corresponding quinolines.
Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2011, vol. 13, # 15, p. 4024 - 4027
[2] Tetrahedron Letters, 2014, vol. 55, # 22, p. 3319 - 3321
[3] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
[4] Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1930, vol. <4> 47, p. 749
[5] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1943, p. 419
[6] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1893, vol. <2> 48, p. 140
[7] Ing. Chimiste Bruessel, 1936, vol. 20, p. 204,207
  • 3
  • [ 137-04-2 ]
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  • [ 611-33-6 ]
Reference: [1] Tetrahedron, 2005, vol. 61, # 38, p. 9042 - 9051
  • 4
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 95-85-2 ]
  • [ 130-16-5 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1947, vol. 69, p. 1222
[2] Journal of Fluorescence, 2018, vol. 28, # 5, p. 1121 - 1126
  • 5
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  • [ 88-75-5 ]
  • [ 148-24-3 ]
  • [ 130-16-5 ]
Reference: [1] Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1947, p. 969
[2] Roczniki Chemii, 1936, vol. 16, p. 519,522[3] Chem. Zentralbl., 1937, vol. 108, # I, p. 3142
  • 6
  • [ 89-64-5 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 130-16-5 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1952, vol. 29, p. 711
[2] Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1952, vol. 29, p. 711
[3] Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1945, vol. 22, p. 169
[4] Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1952, vol. 29, p. 711
  • 7
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  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 2836-04-6 ]
  • [ 494-38-2 ]
Reference: [1] Fortschr. Teerfarbenfabr. Verw. Industriezweige, vol. 3, p. 297
[2] Fortschr. Teerfarbenfabr. Verw. Industriezweige, vol. 3, p. 292
  • 8
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  • [ 494-38-2 ]
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Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1947, p. 244,247
  • 9
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  • [ 57-48-7 ]
  • [ 50-99-7 ]
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Reference: [1] Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2008, vol. 56, # 8, p. 2805 - 2809
  • 10
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  • [ 108-49-6 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: US2010/240894, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 10
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Reference: [1] Patent: US2010/240894, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 13-15
  • 12
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Reference: [1] Patent: US2010/240894, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 12-13; 14
  • 13
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  • [ 108-49-6 ]
Reference: [1] Catalysis Science and Technology, 2017, vol. 7, # 15, p. 3399 - 3407
[2] New Journal of Chemistry, 2017, vol. 41, # 18, p. 9875 - 9883
  • 14
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 21655-48-1 ]
  • [ 106-55-8 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1912, vol. 101, p. 2331
[2] Priv.-Mitt.,
  • 15
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  • [ 18826-95-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
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Reference: [1] ChemCatChem, 2017, vol. 9, # 14, p. 2768 - 2783
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  • [ 107-18-6 ]
  • [ 116-09-6 ]
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Reference: [1] Catalysis Science and Technology, 2014, vol. 4, # 9, p. 3090 - 3098
  • 17
  • [ 504-29-0 ]
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  • [ 254-60-4 ]
Reference: [1] ChemMedChem, 2014, vol. 9, # 6, p. 1161 - 1168
[2] Chemical Communications, 2018, vol. 54, # 18, p. 2268 - 2271
[3] Monatshefte fur Chemie, 1996, vol. 127, # 4, p. 391 - 396
  • 18
  • [ 462-08-8 ]
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  • [ 254-79-5 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
45% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 150℃; for 2.5 h; 1,5-Naphthyridine (4) A flask was charged withcompound 3 (1 g, 10.63 mmol), m-NO2PhSO3Na (3.59 g, 15.95 mmol),glycerol (3.33 mL, 46.85 mmol), H2SO4 (5.92 mL, 111.53mmol) and 3 mL water. The mixture was heated to 150°C and stirred for 2.5 h,then cooled to room temperature, basified with NaOH (4 M) to pH 8, and extractedwith EA (5×30 mL). The combined extracts were washed with brine, driedover anhydrous Na2SO4, and concentrated in vacuum.Purification by chromatography (PE/EA = 1:1) provided compound 4 (622 mg, 45percent) as a yellow solid. MP:74~75°C (Ref.1 75°C).1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 9.04–8.96 (m, 2H), 8.43 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.66 (dd, J= 8.4, 4.1 Hz, 2H).
Reference: [1] Synthetic Communications, 2011, vol. 41, # 12, p. 1843 - 1851
[2] Tetrahedron Letters, 2002, vol. 43, # 20, p. 3747 - 3750
[3] Organic Letters, 2000, vol. 2, # 7, p. 875 - 878
[4] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2017, vol. 23, # 53, p. 13046 - 13050
[5] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2015, vol. 25, # 16, p. 3251 - 3255
[6] Crystal Growth and Design, 2017, vol. 17, # 12, p. 6793 - 6800
[7] Chemische Berichte, 1927, vol. 60, p. 1083[8] Chem. Zentralbl., 1928, vol. 99, # I, p. 2093
[9] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1954, p. 1879,1882
[10] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1950, vol. 15, p. 1224,1231
  • 19
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  • [ 5910-89-4 ]
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  • [ 108-50-9 ]
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Reference: [1] Kinetics and Catalysis, 2016, vol. 57, # 5, p. 602 - 609[2] Kinet. Katal., 2016, vol. 57, # 5, p. 607 - 614,8
  • 20
  • [ 107-15-3 ]
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Reference: [1] Heteroatom Chemistry, 2012, vol. 23, # 4, p. 377 - 382
  • 21
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Reference: [1] Applied Catalysis A: General, 2014, vol. 469, p. 398 - 409
  • 22
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  • [ 109-08-0 ]
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Reference: [1] Applied Catalysis A: General, 2014, vol. 469, p. 398 - 409
[2] Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2014, vol. 126, # 2, p. 387 - 393
  • 23
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 108-44-1 ]
  • [ 612-60-2 ]
Reference: [1] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
[2] Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1882, vol. 3, p. 382
[3] Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1886, vol. 7, p. 140
[4] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2016, vol. 55, # 41, p. 12891 - 12894[5] Angew. Chem., 2016, vol. 128, p. 13083 - 13086,4
  • 24
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 108-44-1 ]
  • [ 612-60-2 ]
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Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2014, vol. 16, # 1, p. 142 - 145
  • 25
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Reference: [1] Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1882, vol. 3, p. 382
  • 26
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Reference: [1] Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1886, vol. 7, p. 140
  • 27
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  • [ 108-44-1 ]
  • [ 7661-55-4 ]
Reference: [1] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
[2] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2016, vol. 55, # 41, p. 12891 - 12894[3] Angew. Chem., 2016, vol. 128, p. 13083 - 13086,4
  • 28
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 108-44-1 ]
  • [ 612-60-2 ]
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Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2014, vol. 16, # 1, p. 142 - 145
  • 29
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  • [ 612-61-3 ]
Reference: [1] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
  • 30
  • [ 108-42-9 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 612-61-3 ]
  • [ 635-27-8 ]
Reference: [1] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1893, vol. <2> 48, p. 263
[2] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1893, vol. <2> 48, p. 283
[3] Chemische Berichte, 1885, vol. 18, p. 2941
[4] Chemische Berichte, 1884, vol. 17, p. 927
[5] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1947, p. 437,44
  • 31
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Reference: [1] Chemische Berichte, 1887, vol. 20, p. 2873
[2] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1889, vol. <2> 40, p. 386[3] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1893, vol. <2> 48, p. 269
[4] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1888, vol. <2> 38, p. 391[5] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1889, vol. <2> 40, p. 382
  • 32
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Reference: [1] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2010, vol. 49, # 49, p. 9456 - 9459
  • 33
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  • [ 371-40-4 ]
  • [ 396-30-5 ]
Reference: [1] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
[2] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2012, vol. 134, # 41, p. 16967 - 16970,4
[3] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2012, vol. 134, # 41, p. 16967 - 16970
[4] Journal of Molecular Structure, 2003, vol. 661-662, # 1-3, p. 209 - 218
[5] Patent: WO2009/87649, 2009, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 24
[6] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2016, vol. 55, # 41, p. 12891 - 12894[7] Angew. Chem., 2016, vol. 128, p. 13083 - 13086,4
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1951, vol. 16, p. 1450
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
81% With tungstic acid functionalized KIT-6 In water at 200℃; for 3 h; Autoclave General procedure: All the reactions were carried out in a 50 mL stainless steel autoclave (Scheme 1). A mixture of glycerol (1 g, 1 equiv.), aniline (0.58 g, 0.5 equiv.), water (2.5 mL) and W-KIT-6 (100 mg) was charged in to the autoclave simultaneously and finally heated to 200 °C with stirring for 3 h. On completion of the reaction (monitored by TLC), the autoclave was cooled to room temperature and the catalyst was removed by filtration. Ethyl acetate (10 mL) and water (5 mL) were added to the reaction mixture and stirred well for few minutes. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and the crude was purified by column chromatography using 60-120 mesh silica with ethylacetate/hexane as eluent to afford the desired product in good yield. The product was analyzed and confirmed with GC-MS and 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy (Table 1 and Figs S1-S5, Supplementary Data).
42% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 140℃; Step 1.
6-Bromoquinoline
4-Bromobenzenamine (25 g, 145.32 mmol, 1.00 equiv), sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate (55.5 g, 246.64 mmol, 1.70 equiv), propane-1,2,3-triol (50.8 g, 551.63 mmol, 3.80 equiv), and sulfuric acid (170 mL, 70percent) were placed into a 500-mL round-bottom flask.
The resulting solution was stirred overnight at 140° C.
The pH value of the solution was adjusted to with 10percent aqueous sodium hydroxide.
The resulting solution was extracted with 5*150 mL of ethyl acetate.
The organic layers were combined and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated in vacuo.
The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1:50).
This resulted in 17.2 g (42percent) of 6-bromoquinoline as yellow oil.
28.6% at 100℃; for 20 h; Reflux Glycerol (60.0mL, 0.82mol), FeSO4·7H2O (7.00g, 0.025mol), p-bromoaniline (34.40g, 0.20mol), and nitrobenzene (12.5mL, 0.13mol) were added to a three-necked round bottom flask with mechanical stirring. H2SO4 (35.0mL, 0.64mol) was added to the system slowly while kept the temperature blow 100°C. The mixture was then heated to reflux for 20h. After cooling to r.t., adjusted pH to 7 with 50percent NaOH aq. solution and extracted with diethyl ether. The extraction was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The product was isolated by reduced pressure distillation. Fraction was collected at 138–140°C, 16Torr (Ref.[13]. 161–162°C, 22Torr). Light yellow liquid was afforded (11.90g, 28.6percent yield). 1H NMR (300MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 9.00 (d, J=4.1Hz, 1H), 8.37 (d, J=8.3Hz, 1H), 8.28 (d, J=1.7Hz, 1H), 8.02 (d, J=9.2Hz, 1H), 7.89 (dd, J1=9.0Hz, J2=2.1Hz, 1H), 7.62 (q, J=8.3Hz, 1H).
Reference: [1] Indian Journal of Chemistry - Section A Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical and Analytical Chemistry, 2016, vol. 55A, # 8, p. 919 - 928
[2] Patent: US2012/277224, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 90
[3] Dyes and Pigments, 2013, vol. 99, # 1, p. 240 - 249
[4] Patent: WO2006/2981, 2006, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 96
[5] Chemische Berichte, 1882, vol. 15, p. 559
[6] Patent: CN105837503, 2016, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0026-0027
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Reference: [1] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
[2] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1947, p. 437,44
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  • [ 580-20-1 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1952, vol. 29, p. 711
[2] Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1952, vol. 29, p. 711
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Reference: [1] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
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  • [ 61892-95-3 ]
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Reference: [1] Chinese Chemical Letters, 2013, vol. 24, # 8, p. 751 - 754
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
83%
Stage #1: at 130℃; for 1 h;
Stage #2: at 130℃; for 18 h;
85percent sulfuric acid (623 g) was added to a 1 L reaction flask, and o-fluoroaniline (133 g, 1.2 mol) was added dropwise. Warm to 130°C and stir for 2 hours. The reaction temperature was controlled at 130°C, and the mixture was dropped with glycerol (121 g, 1.3 mol) and potassium iodide (3 g). The resulting solution was stirred at 130C for 18 hours after the addition was complete. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature and slowly added to ice water. After the release, an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide was added dropwise to adjust the pH to 8-9. Extract with methyl tert-butyl ether to concentrate the separated oil layer. The tert-butyl ether was re-distilled under high vacuum through a packed distillation column to obtain high-purity 8-fluoroquinoline (146 g). The rate is 83percent and the gas chromatogram content is 99.7percent.
Reference: [1] Patent: CN107698503, 2018, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0061-0072
[2] Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 1997, vol. 20, # 6, p. 646 - 650
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2006, vol. 71, # 7, p. 2666 - 2676
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Reference: [1] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
  • 43
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  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 612-61-3 ]
  • [ 635-27-8 ]
Reference: [1] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1893, vol. <2> 48, p. 263
[2] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1893, vol. <2> 48, p. 283
[3] Chemische Berichte, 1885, vol. 18, p. 2941
[4] Chemische Berichte, 1884, vol. 17, p. 927
[5] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1947, p. 437,44
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  • [ 615-36-1 ]
  • [ 16567-18-3 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2009, vol. 131, # 2, p. 412 - 413
[2] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2014, vol. 53, # 1, p. 178 - 183[3] Angew. Chem., 2014, vol. 126, # 1, p. 182 - 187,6
[4] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2017, vol. 23, # 42, p. 9996 - 10000
[5] Chemische Berichte, 1887, vol. 20, p. 2873
[6] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1980, vol. 45, # 8, p. 1514 - 1515
[7] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2017, vol. 82, # 6, p. 2972 - 2983
[8] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2019, p. 290 - 320
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Reference: [1] Chemische Berichte, 1887, vol. 20, p. 2873
[2] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1889, vol. <2> 40, p. 386[3] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1893, vol. <2> 48, p. 269
[4] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1888, vol. <2> 38, p. 391[5] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1889, vol. <2> 40, p. 382
  • 46
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  • [ 4964-76-5 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
48% at 120 - 135℃; for 16 h; Sodium nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (3.9 g, 17.3 mmol) and methanesulfonic acid (10 ml) were placed in a 100 ml three-necked flask and stirred. 0.2 g (0.8 mmol) of iron (II) sulfate hydrate, and 3-methoxyaniline (3.09 mL) were added dropwise and the mixture was heated to about 120 ° C.6.3 g of glycerol was added and the reaction was carried out at 135 ° C. for 16 hours. After completion of the reaction, 10Approximately 100 mL of M aqueous NaOH solution was added and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was collected, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and the solvent was removed and purified by column chromatography to obtain 4.2 g of RL-0107 (yield: about 48percent).
Reference: [1] Chemical Communications, 2017, vol. 53, # 31, p. 4339 - 4341
[2] Patent: JP2018/118935, 2018, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0098
[3] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2013, vol. 52, # 42, p. 11124 - 11128[4] Angew. Chem., 2013, vol. 125, # 42, p. 11330 - 11334,5
[5] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
[6] Chemische Berichte, 1924, vol. 57, p. 1246
[7] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1947, p. 437,44
[8] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1934, p. 1419,1421
  • 47
  • [ 91-22-5 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 1780-17-2 ]
  • [ 6281-32-9 ]
Reference: [1] Synlett, 2004, # 5, p. 874 - 876
  • 48
  • [ 4318-76-7 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 17965-80-9 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
41% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 135℃; for 16 h; b.
1,5-Naphthyridin-2-amine
A mixture of pyridine-2,5-diamine (5.2 g, 33.9 mmol), glycerol (15.6 g, 169.5 mmol), sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulphonate (15.2 g, 67.8 mmol), sulfuric acid (20 mL) and water (30 mL) was heated to 135° C. and stirred for 16 h.
The mixture was cooled to room temperature and then poured into ice/water (150 g).
The pH of the mixture was adjusted to ~9 with saturated aqueous NaOH solution.
Then the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3*100 mL) and the combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduce pressure to give the crude product, which was purified by silica gel column chromatography (eluting with DCM/MeOH v/v 20:1) to afford the product as a yellow solid (2.0 g, yield 41percent). ESI MS: m/z 146 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.50 (dd, J=1.6 Hz, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.82-7.80 (m, 1H), 7.47 (dd, J=4.0 Hz, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (d, J=9.2 Hz, 1H), 6.72 (s, 2H).
Reference: [1] Patent: US2012/178748, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 47
[2] Yakugaku Zasshi, 1942, vol. 62, p. 257,265; dtsch. Ref. S. 66[3] Chem.Abstr., 1951, p. 2950
[4] Patent: WO2011/150156, 2011, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 133
  • 49
  • [ 5350-93-6 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 10261-82-2 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: DE507637, 1926, ,
[2] Fortschr. Teerfarbenfabr. Verw. Industriezweige, vol. 17, p. 2445
[3] Fortschr. Teerfarbenfabr. Verw. Industriezweige, vol. 17, p. 2445
  • 50
  • [ 33630-94-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 10261-82-2 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1949, p. 1157,1159
[2] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1956, p. 212
[3] Fortschr. Teerfarbenfabr. Verw. Industriezweige, vol. 17, p. 2445
  • 51
  • [ 536-90-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 6931-19-7 ]
Reference: [1] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2016, vol. 55, # 41, p. 12891 - 12894[2] Angew. Chem., 2016, vol. 128, p. 13083 - 13086,4
  • 52
  • [ 99-99-0 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 91-62-3 ]
  • [ 19655-46-0 ]
Reference: [1] Roczniki Chemii, 1936, vol. 16, p. 519,522[2] Chem. Zentralbl., 1937, vol. 108, # I, p. 3142
  • 53
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 615-65-6 ]
  • [ 19655-46-0 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1950, p. 2207,2209
  • 54
  • [ 7647-01-0 ]
  • [ 99-99-0 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 91-62-3 ]
  • [ 19655-46-0 ]
Reference: [1] Roczniki Chemii, 1936, vol. 16, p. 519,522[2] Chem. Zentralbl., 1937, vol. 108, # I, p. 3142
  • 55
  • [ 33630-99-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 67967-11-7 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1952, p. 4985,4990
  • 56
  • [ 5439-04-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 33216-52-3 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1905, vol. 87, p. 801[2] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1908, vol. 93, p. 1993
  • 57
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 501-30-4 ]
Reference: [1] Atti della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Rendiconti, 1921, vol. <5> 30 II, p. 325[2] Gazzetta Chimica Italiana, 1921, vol. 51 II, p. 274
[3] Atti della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Rendiconti, 1921, vol. <5> 30 II, p. 325[4] Gazzetta Chimica Italiana, 1921, vol. 51 II, p. 274
  • 58
  • [ 39478-78-9 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 74316-55-5 ]
Reference: [1] Yakugaku Zasshi, 1928, vol. 48, p. 74[2] Chem. Zentralbl., 1928, vol. 99, # II, p. 53
[3] Patent: WO2011/67272, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 81
[4] Patent: US2012/238517, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 38
[5] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2014, vol. 79, # 11, p. 5379 - 5385
[6] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2016, vol. 22, # 32, p. 11165 - 11169
[7] Organic Letters, 2017, vol. 19, # 8, p. 2086 - 2089
  • 59
  • [ 95-54-5 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 91-19-0 ]
  • [ 51-17-2 ]
  • [ 41242-94-8 ]
  • [ 4856-97-7 ]
  • [ 6965-02-2 ]
  • [ 2215-43-2 ]
  • [ 4857-05-0 ]
Reference: [1] ChemCatChem, 2013, vol. 5, # 12, p. 3866 - 3874
  • 60
  • [ 95-84-1 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 5541-67-3 ]
Reference: [1] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2014, vol. 20, # 21, p. 6358 - 6365
[2] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1955, p. 4391
[3] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1981, vol. 323, # 6, p. 979 - 984
[4] Journal of Fluorescence, 2018, vol. 28, # 5, p. 1121 - 1126
  • 61
  • [ 52671-64-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 18119-24-9 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
77%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid; boric acid; iron(II) sulfate In nitrobenzene at 120 - 150℃; for 22 h;
Stage #2: With potassium carbonate In water; nitrobenzene
Step 4:
8-Chloro-6-hydroxyquinoline
In a 500 mL 3-necked flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a reflux condenser, were added in order ferrous sulfate (2.0 g), 4-amino-3-chlorophenol hydrochloride (6.4 g, commercially available), nitrobenzene (2.9 mL) and a solution of boric acid (3.0 g) in glycerol (16 g).
Then concentrated sulfuric acid (9 mL) was added drop by drop with cooling.
The ice bath was removed and replaced by an oil bath and the mixture was heated cautiously to 120° C. for 2 hours, then at 150° C. and kept stirring under this temperature for 20 hours.
After cooling, the reaction was poured on crushed ice and the resulting solution was neutralized with K2CO3.
The product separated as a light brown solid that was filtered off, washed with water and hexanes and dried in a vacuum oven (35° C.) overnight giving 7 g (77percent) of the desired product. MS (ES) m/z (relative intensity): 180 (M++-H, 100).
77%
Stage #1: at 0 - 150℃; for 22 h;
Stage #2: With potassium carbonate In water
In a 500 ml 3-necked flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a reflux condenser, were added in order ferrous sulfate (2.0 g), 4-amino-3-chlorophenol hydrochloride (6.4 g, commercially available), nitrobenzene (2.9 mL) and a solution of boric acid (3.0 g) in glycerol (16 g).
Then concentrated sulfuric acid (9 mL) was added drop by drop with cooling.
The ice bath was removed and replaced by an oil bath and the mixture was heated cautiously to 120° C. for 2 hours, then at 150° C. and kept stirring under this temperature for 20 hours.
After cooling, the reaction was poured on crushed ice and the resulting solution was neutralized with K2CO3.
The product separated as a light brown solid that was filtered off, washed with water and hexanes and dried in a vacuum oven (35° C.) overnight giving 7 g (77percent) of the desired product. MS (ES) m/z (relative intensity): 180 (M++-H, 100).
Reference: [1] Patent: US2007/299083, 2007, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 14
[2] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, vol. 53, # 10, p. 4066 - 4084
[3] Patent: US2007/27160, 2007, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 43
  • 62
  • [ 17609-80-2 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 18119-24-9 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
77%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid; boric acid; iron(II) sulfate; nitrobenzene In water at 0 - 150℃; for 22 h;
Stage #2: With potassium carbonate In water
Example 10
Intermediate 10-8-chloro-6-hydroxy-quinoline
In a 500 ml 3-necked flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer and a reflux condenser, added in order were 2.0 g ferrous sulfate, 6.4 g 4-amino, 3-chloro-phenol (generated from 9.0 g of the corresponding commercially available HCl salt), 2.9 m nitrobenzene and a cold solution of 3.0 g boric acid in 16 g of glycerol.
Then, 9 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added drop by drop with cooling.
The ice bath was removed and replaced by an oil bath and the mixture was heated cautiously to 120° C. for 2 hrs, then at 150° C. and kept stirring under this temperature for 20 hrs.
The mixture was then cooled and poured on crushed ice and the resulting solution was neutralized to with K2CO3 (saturated solution in water) till exactly pH 5.
The product separated as a light brown solid which was filtered off, washed with water and hexane and dried in a vacuum oven (35° C.) overnight.
The product was purified by dissolving it in a minimal amount of THF, and the solution poured in 20* volume of hexane, giving 7 g (77percent) of the desired product.
77% With sulfuric acid; boric acid; iron(II) sulfate In water; nitrobenzene at 120 - 150℃; for 22 h; In a 500 ml 3-necked flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer and a reflux condenser, added in order were 2.0 g ferrous sulfate, 6.4 g 4-amino, 3-chloro-phenol (generated from 9.0 g of the corresponding commercially available HC1 salt), 2.9 m nitrobenzene and a cold solution of 3.0 g boric acid in 16 g of glycerol. Then, 9 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added drop by drop with cooling. The ice bath was removed and replaced by an oil bath and the mixture was heated cautiously to 120°C for 2 hrs, then at 150°C and kept stirring under this temperature for 20 hrs. The mixture was then cooled and poured on crushed ice and the resulting solution was neutralized to with K2C03 (saturated solution in water) till exactly pH 5. The product separated as a light brown solid which was filtered off, washed with water and hexane and dried in a vacuum oven (35°C) overnight. The product was purified by dissolving it in a minimal amount OF THF, and the solution poured in 20X volume of hexane, giving 7 g (77 percent) of the desired product.
Reference: [1] Patent: US2009/54454, 2009, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 15
[2] Patent: WO2004/99191, 2004, A2, . Location in patent: Page 33
  • 63
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 626-43-7 ]
  • [ 4964-77-6 ]
Reference: [1] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2013, vol. 52, # 42, p. 11124 - 11128[2] Angew. Chem., 2013, vol. 125, # 42, p. 11330 - 11334,5
[3] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1895, vol. <2> 51, p. 415
  • 64
  • [ 626-40-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 34522-69-5 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
56%
Stage #1: at 120℃;
Stage #2: at 130℃;
Step 1: A 100 mL flask was charged with 3,5-dibromoaniline (5.00 g, 19.9 mmol), sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate (987 mg, 4.39 mmol), iron(ll)sulfate heptahydrate (63.2 mg, 0.658 mmol), and methanesulfonic acid (20 mL). A reflux condenser was added, and the reaction was heated in a 120 °C aluminum block.Glycerol (0.64 mL, 8.8 mmol) was added through the condenser, and the aluminum block temperature was then increased to 130 °C. Heating was continued overnight. After cooling to rt, the reaction mixture was diluted with DCM and water, cooled in an ice/water bath, and rendered alkaline by addition of a 50percent aqueous solution of NaOH. The resulting mixture was filtered over Celite® and extracted with DCM. The organicphase was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to a brown solid. Purification by chromatography (80 g Si gel, 0—40percent EtOAc in heptane gradient over 17 CV and then held at 40percent) afforded 5,7-dibromoquinoline as a tan solid (3.19 g, 56percent). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) O 7.53 (dd, 1 H), 7.96 (d, 1 H), 8.29 (d, 1 H), 8.50 (d, 1 H), 8.93 (dd, 1 H). LCMS (ESI) m/z: 285.9 [M+H] (95percent). LCMS data were acquired from the reactionmixture immediately prior to workup.
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2016/103097, 2016, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 59; 60
[2] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1889, vol. <2> 40, p. 380
  • 65
  • [ 99-05-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 1078-30-4 ]
  • [ 7250-53-5 ]
Reference: [1] Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 1982, vol. 18, p. 604 - 605[2] Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, 1982, vol. 18, # 5, p. 638 - 640
[3] Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 1982, vol. 18, p. 604 - 605[4] Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, 1982, vol. 18, # 5, p. 638 - 640
  • 66
  • [ 150-13-0 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 10349-57-2 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
95% at 140℃; Step 1.
Quinoline-6-carboxylic acid
Into a 500-mL 3-necked round-bottom flask, was placed 4-aminobenzoic acid (13.7 g, 100.00 mmol, 1.00 equiv), 4-nitrobenzoic acid (10.7 g, 64.07 mmol, 0.64 equiv), boric acid (5.9 g), FeSO4.7H2O (6.4 g), glycerol (38 mL), and concentrated sulfuric acid (18 mL).
The resulting solution was stirred overnight at 140° C.
The reaction mixture was cooled.
The pH value of the solution was adjusted to 10 with sodium hydroxide (10percent).
The resulting solution was extracted with 2*100 mL of ethyl acetate and the aqueous layers were combined.
The pH value of the aqueous layers was adjusted to pH 6 with conc. hydrochloric acid.
The solids were collected by filtration.
The resulting solution was diluted with 200 mL of methanol and the resulting solids were collected by filtration.
The solid was dried to afford 17.3 g (95percent) of quinoline-6-carboxylic acid as a dark-grey solid.
LC-MS: (ES, m/z):174 [M+H]+
56%
Stage #1: at 135℃; for 48 h;
Stage #2: at 0℃;
Step 1:
Quinoline-6-carboxylic acid
To a mixture of 4-aminobenzoic acid (175 g, 1.28 mol), 4-nitrophenol (88.75 g, 0.64 mol) and sulphuric acid (1.2 lit.), glycerol (234.8 g, 2.55 mol) was added dropwise at 135° C.
After 48 h, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C. and the pH adjusted to 3-5 with 10percent sodium hydroxide solution.
The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and washed with water and dried under vacuum to afford the title compound as a black solid (125 g, 56percent).
56% at 135℃; for 48 h; To a mixture of 4-aminobenzoic acid (175 g, 1.28 mol), 4-nitrophenol (88.75 g, 0.64 mol) and sulphuric acid (1.2 lit.), glycerol (234.8 g, 2.55 mol) was added dropwise at 135°C. After 48h, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C and the pH adjusted to 3-5 with 10percent sodium hydroxide solution. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and washed with water and dried under vacuum to afford the title compound as a black solid (125 g, 56percent).
56% at 135℃; for 48 h; [252] Intermediates Intermediate 1: Quinolin-6-ylmethanamine: Stepl : Quinoline-6-carboxylic acid: To a mixture of 4-aminobenzoic acid: (175 g, 1.28 mol), 4-nitrophenol (88.75 g, 0.64 mol) and sulphuric acid (1.2 lit.), glycerol (234.8 g, 2.55 mol) was added drop wise at 135°C. After 48h, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C and the pH adjusted to 3-5 with 10percent sodium hydroxide solution. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and washed with water and dried under vacuum to afford the title compound as a black solid (125 g, 56percent).
56%
Stage #1: at 135℃; for 48 h;
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide In water at 0℃;
Step 1:
Quinoline-6-carboxylic acid
To a mixture of 4-aminobenzoic acid: (175 g, 1.28 mol), 4-nitrophenol (88.75 g, 0.64 mol) and sulphuric acid (1.2 lit.), glycerol (234.8 g, 2.55 mol) was added drop wise at 135° C.
After 48 h, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C. and the pH adjusted to 3-5 with 10percent sodium hydroxide solution.
The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and washed with water and dried under vacuum to afford the title compound as a black solid (125 g, 56percent).

Reference: [1] Patent: US2012/277224, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 82
[2] Patent: US2011/281865, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 83
[3] Patent: WO2011/145035, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 107-108
[4] Patent: WO2013/144737, 2013, A2, . Location in patent: Paragraph 252
[5] Patent: US2015/57309, 2015, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0504
[6] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1946, vol. 68, p. 2721
  • 67
  • [ 150-13-0 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 62-23-7 ]
  • [ 10349-57-2 ]
Reference: [1] Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1891, vol. 12, p. 309
[2] Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1881, vol. 2, p. 519
  • 68
  • [ 7664-93-9 ]
  • [ 150-13-0 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 62-23-7 ]
  • [ 10349-57-2 ]
Reference: [1] Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1881, vol. 2, p. 519
  • 69
  • [ 40925-68-6 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 1198-14-7 ]
Reference: [1] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1891, vol. <2> 44, p. 439,442
[2] Journal of Fluorescence, 2018, vol. 28, # 5, p. 1121 - 1126
  • 70
  • [ 88-74-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 607-35-2 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
72% With sulfuric acid In water for 4 h; Reflux 8-Nitroquinoline (3). Concentrated sulfuric avid,385 mL, was slowly added to a suspension of 165.6 g(1.2 mol) of 2-nitroaniline (1) in 265 mL of water, themixture was heated to the boil, and 125 mL (1.71 mol)of glycerol (2) was slowly added. The resulting mixturewas refluxed under stirring for 4 h, cooled, dilutedwith equal volume of water, and neutralized with a25percent ammonia solution. The precipitate that formedwas filtered off, washed with water, dried, dissolved inbenzene, and chromatographed on alumina (Brockmannactivity II) with benzene as eluent. The eluatewas reduced in a minimal volume, 8-nitroquinolinewas precipitated with methanol, filtered off, and driedat 70° in air. Yield 75.6 g (72percent).
Reference: [1] Russian Journal of General Chemistry, 2016, vol. 86, # 9, p. 2232 - 2235[2] Zh. Obshch. Khim., 2014, vol. 58, # 5-6, p. 85 - 89,5
[3] Chemische Berichte, 1883, vol. 16, p. 673
[4] Chemische Berichte, 1896, vol. 29, p. 708
[5] Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research, 2011, vol. 61, # 7, p. 373 - 378
  • 71
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  • [ 88-74-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 607-35-2 ]
Reference: [1] Chemische Berichte, 1896, vol. 29, p. 708
  • 72
  • [ 7664-93-9 ]
  • [ 98-95-3 ]
  • [ 88-74-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 607-35-2 ]
Reference: [1] Chemische Berichte, 1883, vol. 16, p. 673
  • 73
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 99-09-2 ]
  • [ 607-34-1 ]
  • [ 613-51-4 ]
Reference: [1] Synthesis, 1981, vol. No.4, p. 316 - 318
[2] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1908, vol. <2> 77, p. 473
[3] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1901, vol. <2> 63, p. 573,576
[4] Chemische Berichte, 1896, vol. 29, p. 708
[5] Gazzetta Chimica Italiana, 1980, vol. 110, # 2/3, p. 155 - 162
[6] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1908, vol. <2> 77, p. 473
[7] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1901, vol. <2> 63, p. 573,576
[8] Chemische Berichte, 1896, vol. 29, p. 708
[9] Patent: US6750348, 2004, B1, . Location in patent: Page column 41-42
  • 74
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  • [ 7778-39-4 ]
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Reference: [1] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1901, vol. <2> 63, p. 573,576
  • 75
  • [ 100-01-6 ]
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Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society - Perkin Transactions 1, 1999, # 13, p. 1839 - 1845
[2] Chemische Berichte, 1883, vol. 16, p. 673
[3] Chemische Berichte, 1896, vol. 29, p. 708
[4] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1943, p. 413,416
[5] RSC Advances, 2014, vol. 4, # 41, p. 21456 - 21464
  • 76
  • [ 104-04-1 ]
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1947, vol. 12, p. 435[2] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1948, vol. 13, p. 937
  • 77
  • [ 100-01-6 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 230-07-9 ]
  • [ 613-50-3 ]
Reference: [1] Chemische Berichte, 1886, vol. 19, p. 2377
[2] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1888, vol. <2> 38, p. 391[3] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1889, vol. <2> 40, p. 382
  • 78
  • [ 7664-93-9 ]
  • [ 98-95-3 ]
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  • [ 613-50-3 ]
Reference: [1] Chemische Berichte, 1883, vol. 16, p. 673
  • 79
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 99-09-2 ]
  • [ 607-34-1 ]
  • [ 613-51-4 ]
Reference: [1] Synthesis, 1981, vol. No.4, p. 316 - 318
[2] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1908, vol. <2> 77, p. 473
[3] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1901, vol. <2> 63, p. 573,576
[4] Chemische Berichte, 1896, vol. 29, p. 708
[5] Gazzetta Chimica Italiana, 1980, vol. 110, # 2/3, p. 155 - 162
[6] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1908, vol. <2> 77, p. 473
[7] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1901, vol. <2> 63, p. 573,576
[8] Chemische Berichte, 1896, vol. 29, p. 708
[9] Patent: US6750348, 2004, B1, . Location in patent: Page column 41-42
  • 80
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 99-09-2 ]
  • [ 613-51-4 ]
Reference: [1] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1893, vol. <2> 48, p. 177
[2] Chemische Berichte, 1887, vol. 20, p. 3095
  • 81
  • [ 7664-93-9 ]
  • [ 7778-39-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 99-09-2 ]
  • [ 613-51-4 ]
Reference: [1] Chemische Berichte, 1896, vol. 29, p. 708
  • 82
  • [ 7664-93-9 ]
  • [ 7778-39-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 99-09-2 ]
  • [ 607-34-1 ]
  • [ 613-51-4 ]
Reference: [1] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1901, vol. <2> 63, p. 573,576
  • 83
  • [ 67-56-1 ]
  • [ 99-05-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 16675-62-0 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
21 g
Stage #1: at 150℃; for 7 h;
Stage #2: for 12 h; Reflux
Synthesis of methyl quinoline-5-carboxylate (intermediate-97):A 500mL RB flask fitted with magnetic stirrer was charged with Starting Material-32 (60g,435mmo1), Starting material-33 (168g, 1824mmo1), 3-nitrobenzoic acid (30g, i79mmol) in9OmL of conc.H2S04. Then reaction mixture was heated at 150 CC for 7 h. After reactioncooled to RT and added MeOH (600 mL) and refluxed for 12 hours. Then cooled to 0 °C quenched with ice and concentrated. Crude reaction mixture was basif led with NaHCO3, extracted with DCM and concentrated. Resulted crude material was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with Petroleum ether (60-80), ethyl acetate and 0.5percent of triethylamine as eluent. The product (intermediate-97) was obtained as a brown liquid (21g).
21 g
Stage #1: at 150℃; for 7 h; Reflux
Stage #2: at 20℃; for 12 h; Reflux
Synthesis of methyl quinoline-5-carboxylate (intermediate-97) [0751] A 500 mL RB flask fitted with magnetic stirrer was charged with Starting Material-32 (60 g, 435 mmol), Starting material-33 (168 g, 1824 mmol), 3-nitrobenzoic acid (30 g, 179 mmol) in 90 mL of conc.H2SO4. Then reaction mixture was heated at 150° C. for 7 h. After reaction cooled to RT and added MeOH (600 mL) and refluxed for 12 hours. Then cooled to 0° C. quenched with ice and concentrated. Crude reaction mixture was basified with NaHCO3, extracted with DCM and concentrated. Resulted crude material was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with Petroleum ether (60-80), ethyl acetate and 0.5percent of triethylamine as eluent. The product (intermediate-97) was obtained as a brown liquid (21 g).
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2013/128465, 2013, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 203
[2] Patent: US2015/158860, 2015, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0750; 0751
  • 84
  • [ 1197-55-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 5622-34-4 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
51%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid; iron(II) sulfate In nitrobenzene at 200℃; for 5 h;
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide In water; nitrobenzene
N-((4-chloro-2-methylp yl)quinolin-6-yl)acetamidea) 2-(quinolin-6-yl)acetic acidA mixture of / aminophenylacetic acid (20 g, 0.132 mol), FeSC>4 (4.9 g, 0.032 mol), glycerol (51 g, 0.555 mol), PhN02 (10.5 g, 0.086 mol), and concentrated H2S04 (23 mL) was heated to 200 °C for 5 h. The reaction mixture was treated with 4 N aq. NaOH to adjust the pH to -10. The reaction mixture was filtered and the clear filtrate was acidified with AcOH to pH~5. The resultant precipitate was collected by filtration to afford the title compound (12.5 g, 51percent) as a brown solid. TLC: 20percent MeOH/CH2Cl2, Rf= 0.2.H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) 8 ppm 8.85 (m, 1H), 8.31 - 8.28 (m, 1H), 7.96 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.82 (m, 1H), 7.67 - 7.64 (m, 1H), 7.50 - 7.49 (m, 1H), 3.78 (s, 2H).
17.8%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid; iron(II) sulfate In nitrobenzene for 5 h; Heating / reflux
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide In water; nitrobenzene
A mixture of compound 1 (276 g, 1.8 mol), ferrous sulfate (63.6 g, 0.22 mol), glycerol (696 g, 7.56 mol), nitrobenzene (138 g, 1.12 mol) and cone, sulfuric acid (324 mL) was heated gently. After the first vigorous reaction, the mixture was refluxed for five hours and then was treated with aq. sodium hydroxide solution (2 N, 1320 mL), stirred with kieselguhr, and filtered. The filtrate was basified with aq. sodium hydroxide solution to pH 5~6, and a dark brown precipitate formed. The precipitate was filtered, washed with water, taken up with aq. sodium hydroxide solution (0.82 N, 3000 mL), then boiled with carbon (150 g). The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was treated with glacial acetic acid (240 mL), and the mixture was left standing overnight during which time dark-brown crystalline precipitate formed. The precipitate was collected and dried in vacuo to give crude compound 2 (60 g, 17.8percent).
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2013/19682, 2013, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 117
[2] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2013, vol. 56, # 17, p. 6651 - 6665
[3] Patent: WO2007/138472, 2007, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 28
[4] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1948, vol. 70, p. 2843,2945
[5] Patent: WO2009/137404, 2009, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 60
  • 85
  • [ 5925-93-9 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 55706-57-5 ]
Reference: [1] J. Annamalai Univ., 1933, vol. 2, p. 227,236
  • 86
  • [ 2941-78-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 55706-57-5 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2013, vol. 78, # 17, p. 8217 - 8231
  • 87
  • [ 98-16-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 325-14-4 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
69%
Stage #1: at 70 - 85℃; for 0.666667 h;
Stage #2: With iodine; potassium iodide In water at 135℃; for 4 h;
H2SO4 (13.7 g, 0.14 mol) was slowly added to glycerol (8.63 g, 0.094 mol).The temperature must not exceed 70 ° C,Then add m-trifluoromethylaniline (5.00 g, 0.031 mol),The temperature was raised to 85 ° C and the reaction was carried out for 40 min.Add potassium iodide (0.30 g, 1.80 mmol),(0.34 g, 1.34 mmol) of iodine,Water (1.50 mL), warmed to 135 ° C, and reacted for 4 h.After cooling to room temperature, it was poured into ice to quench the reaction and suction filtered over Celite. The filtrate was adjusted to pH 7 with aqueous ammonia, suction filtered, and the filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate.The organic phase is dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated.The residue was subjected to column chromatography to give 7-trifluoromethylquinoline (3.50 g, 69percent).
22.13% at 80 - 170℃; for 4 h; Conc. sulfuric acid (4.56 g; 1.5 equiv.) was added dropwise to a mixture of 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline (5 g; 1 equiv.), glycerol (5.14 g; 1.8 equiv.) and iodine (150 mg). The resulting reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 80-90° C. and for 3 hours at 160-170° C. When the conversion was complete, the reaction mixture was diluted at room temperature with 100 ml of water, neutralised with sodium carbonate and extracted 4.x. with 200 ml of dichloromethane. The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the crude product was purified by column chromatography (silica gel, 10percent EtOAc/hexane). 7-(Trifluoromethyl)quinoline (1.35 g; 22.13percent) was obtained in the form of a white crystalline solid.
Reference: [1] Patent: CN108409649, 2018, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0042; 0043; 0044
[2] Patent: US2010/234340, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 21
  • 88
  • [ 98-16-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 325-14-4 ]
  • [ 342-30-3 ]
Reference: [1] Experientia, 1947, vol. 3, p. 28
[2] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1943, vol. 65, p. 2467
[3] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1954, p. 3846,3849
  • 89
  • [ 7664-93-9 ]
  • [ 98-16-8 ]
  • [ 7778-39-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 325-14-4 ]
  • [ 342-30-3 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1943, vol. 65, p. 2467
  • 90
  • [ 536-25-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 5852-78-8 ]
Reference: [1] Chemische Berichte, 1916, vol. 49, p. 16
  • 91
  • [ 2840-29-1 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 204782-96-7 ]
Reference: [1] Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1887, vol. 237, p. 323
[2] Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1887, vol. 237, p. 323
  • 92
  • [ 139399-67-0 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 66127-01-3 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1951, vol. 16, p. 941,945
  • 93
  • [ 57339-57-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 40000-20-2 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1944, vol. 66, p. 396
  • 94
  • [ 53472-18-7 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 40000-20-2 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1946, p. 155
  • 95
  • [ 875-51-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 68527-67-3 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
46% at 150℃; for 0.75 h; Inert atmosphere General procedure: To glycerol (4.7 mL, 62.0 mmol) preheated to 160 C for 1 hour, and cooled down to 110 C, 4-bromo-2-nitroaniline (5.00 g, 23.0 mmol) and sodium iodide (0.07 g, 0.48 mmol) were added. The mixture was vigorously stirred, heated to 150 C and sulfuric acid 95-98percent (2.8 ml, 53.0 mmol) was added drop wise. After 45 minutes at 150 C, the mixture was allowed to reach room temperature, and then distributed in DCM and water. The organic layer was separated, washed with water, brine solution, dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated. The crude product was purified through column chromatography to give 21 compound (2.6 g, 46percent); 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 9.06 (d, J = 4.3 Hz, 1H), 8.52-8.66 (m, 3H), 7.79 (dd, J = 8.4, 4.2 Hz, 1H); LCMS (m/z) = 253 [M+1]
Reference: [1] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2015, vol. 25, # 5, p. 1100 - 1103
[2] Monatshefte fuer Chemie, 1994, vol. 125, # 6/7, p. 723 - 730
  • 96
  • [ 881-50-5 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 68527-67-3 ]
Reference: [1] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1911, vol. <2> 84, p. 447
  • 97
  • [ 10403-47-1 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 139366-35-1 ]
Reference: [1] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2017, vol. 23, # 42, p. 9996 - 10000
  • 98
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 99-57-0 ]
  • [ 4008-48-4 ]
Reference: [1] Archiv der Pharmazie (Weinheim, Germany), 1958, vol. 291, p. 168,175
  • 99
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 442-51-3 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1919, vol. 115, p. 939
  • 100
  • [ 42606-38-2 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 4199-88-6 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1946, p. 155
  • 101
  • [ 53981-25-2 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 35048-10-3 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
59% With sulfuric acid In nitrobenzene at 140℃; for 6 h; Sealed tube; Inert atmosphere To a solution of 2-amino-6-fluoro-phenol (2000 mg, 15.73 mmol) and nitrobenene (10 ml) in a sealable reaction pressure vessel was added in portions sulfuric acid (2 mL, 37.52 mmol). Glycerol (4.8 mL, 65.15 mmol) was added in one portion, and the solution turned to dark brown. The vessel was flushed with nitrogen, sealed and heated to 140 °C for 6 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to ambient, diluted with (30 mL) ice/water mixture, extracted (2 X 200 mL) methyl tert-butyl ether. The aqueous phase was neutralized to pH~6-7 by slow addition of 6N sodium hydroxide. The resulting black precipitate was collected by filtration and the water solution was extracted with ethyl acetate 3 times. The organic extracts were combined with the black precipitate, concentrated in vacuo, and purified by automated normal-phase chromatography using 0-10percent methanol/dichloromethane as an eluent. The title compound was isolated as a solid (1.56 g, 59percent yield). MS (ES+) m/z 164.9 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ ppm 7.43 - 7.49 (m, 1 H) 7.50 - 7.57 (m, 2 H) 8.37 (dd, J=8.21, 1.64 Hz, 1 H) 8.90 (dd, J=4.17, 1.64 Hz, 1 H) 10.26 (br. s., 1 H).
51.7%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid In nitrobenzene at 140℃; for 6 h;
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide In water
To a solution of 2-amino-6-fluorophenol (4.0 g, 31.6 mmol) and nitrobenzene (20 mL) in a sealable reaction vessel was added in portions sulfuric acid (4.0 mL). Glycerol (12.0 g, 126 mmol) was added in one portion, and the solution turned to dark brown. The vessel was flushed with nitrogen, sealed and heated to 140 °C for 6 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, diluted with 30 mL ice/water mixture, and washed 3 times with methyl -butyl ether (removes most of the nitrobenzene). The aqueous phase was neutralized to pH=6-7 by slow addition of 6N NaOH. The resulting black precipitate was collected and the water solution was extracted with ethyl acetate 3 times. The organic extracts were combined with the black precipitate, concentrated in vacuo, and purified on silica gel column with 0-10percent MeOH/DCM to give 2.67 g (51.7percent) of 7-fluoro-8-quinolinol as an off-white solid.
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2016/123576, 2016, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0276
[2] Patent: WO2012/20389, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 40-41
  • 102
  • [ 1526-17-6 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 35048-10-3 ]
Reference: [1] Chemical Communications, 2006, # 18, p. 1941 - 1943
  • 103
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 635-21-2 ]
  • [ 6456-78-6 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
68.91%
Stage #1: at 65 - 140℃; for 5.5 - 7.5 h;
Stage #2: at 0℃;
Example-2; 6-Chloro-l ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-quinoline-8-carboxylic acid (4-/er/-butyl-benzyl)-[2-(4- fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-amide, hydrochloride salt a) Concentrated sulfuric acid (73.83 g, 0.80 mol) was added dropwise to a vigorously stirred mixture of 2-amino-5-chloro-benzoic acid (90 g, 0.524 mol), I2 (1.65g, 6.4 mmol) in glycerol within 30 minutes, wherein the temperature of the mixture rises to 65-70 0C. The mixture was then heated to 135-140 0C for 5-7 hrs giving a dark brown foaming mixture. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into 1500 ml of ice water. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 6.5 by adding 25-30 percent ammonia solution. The precipitated compound was filtered, washed with cold water and dried over P2O5 to get brown solid. of 6-chloro- quinoline-8-carboxylic acid (75 g) (Yield=68.91 percent).
68.91%
Stage #1: at 20 - 140℃;
Stage #2: With ammonia In water; glycerol
Concentrated sulfuric acid (73.83 g, 0.80 mol) was added dropwise to a vigorously stirred mixture of 2-amino-5-chloro-benzoic acid (90 g, 0.524 mol), I2 (1.65 g, 6.4 mmol) in glycerol within 30 minutes, wherein the temperature of the mixture rises to 65-70° C. The mixture was then heated to 135-140° C. for 5-7 hrs giving a dark brown foaming mixture. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into 1500 ml of ice water. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 6.5 by adding 25-30percent ammonia solution. The precipitated compound was filtered, washed with cold water and dried over P2O5 to get brown solid of 6-chloro-quinoline-8-carboxylic acid (75 g) (Yield=68.91percent).
7.9% at 65 - 140℃; for 6.5 h; 1.01 g of 5-chloroanthranilic acid and 26.6 mg of iodine were mixed with 0.7 6 g of glycerol, and the mixture was vigorously stirred,0.44 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid was added dropwise at 65 ° C. to 70 ° C. over a period of 30 minutes and the reaction was carried out at 140 ° C. for 6 hours. Then,17 mL of water at 0 ° C. was added and the pH6.5 was filtered, the solid was washed with cold water and then dried. The obtained residue was dissolved in chloroform,Insolubles were removed by filtration, activated carbon was added to adsorb impurities, and the activated carbon was removed by filtration.The solvent was distilled off, and the residue obtained was recrystallized in a mixed solution of chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the obtained crystals were washed with ethyl acetate.The solvent was distilled off to obtain 96.2 mg (yield 7.9percent) of the compoundWas obtained. For this compound, NMR, mass spectrum,The melting point was measured, and the compound 2 having the structure of the general formula 3(6-chloroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid) was confirmed.
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2008/59513, 2008, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 14
[2] Patent: US2009/171091, 2009, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 6
[3] Patent: JP2018/52866, 2018, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0046
  • 104
  • [ 107-15-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 290-37-9 ]
  • [ 109-08-0 ]
  • [ 123-32-0 ]
  • [ 5910-89-4 ]
  • [ 6705-33-5 ]
  • [ 108-50-9 ]
  • [ 5780-66-5 ]
Reference: [1] Kinetics and Catalysis, 2016, vol. 57, # 5, p. 602 - 609[2] Kinet. Katal., 2016, vol. 57, # 5, p. 607 - 614,8
  • 105
  • [ 107-15-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 290-37-9 ]
  • [ 109-08-0 ]
  • [ 123-32-0 ]
  • [ 5910-89-4 ]
  • [ 5780-66-5 ]
Reference: [1] Catalysis Communications, 2011, vol. 12, # 12, p. 1067 - 1070
  • 106
  • [ 1824-81-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 1569-16-0 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: CN106045996, 2016, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0109; 0110; 0111; 0112
  • 107
  • [ 13535-01-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 17965-71-8 ]
Reference: [1] ChemMedChem, 2014, vol. 9, # 1, p. 217 - 232
[2] Patent: WO2017/144639, 2017, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 105
  • 108
  • [ 452-58-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 17965-82-1 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
39%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 135℃; for 16 h;
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide In water
a.
1,7-Naphthyridin-8-amine
A mixture of pyridine-2,3-diamine (5.0 g, 45.9 mmol), glycerol (21.1 g, 229 mmol), sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulphonate (20.6 g, 91.7 mmol), sulfuric acid (20 mL) and water (30 mL) was heated to 135° C. and stirred for 16 h.
The mixture was cooled to room temperature and then poured into ice/water (150 g).
The mixture was adjusted to pH ~9 with saturated NaOH aqueous solution.
Then the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3*100 mL).
The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduce pressure to give the crude product, which was purified by silica gel column (eluting with PE/EtOAc v/v 2:1) to give 1,7-naphthyridin-8-amine as a yellow solid (2.6 g, yield 39percent). ESI MS: m/z 146.1 [M+H]+.
22% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 135℃; for 144 h; To a mixture of pyridine-2 , 3-diamine (10.0 g, 91.74 mmol) , sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate (41.3 g, 183.5 mmol) and glycerol (33.5 mL, 458.7 mmol) were added water (60 mL) and sulfuric acid (40 mL) . The reaction mixture was heated at 135°C for 6 days. The product formation was confirmed by TLC. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, and poured into ice-cold water. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 8-9 with saturated NaOH solution (aq. ) . The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 100 mL) . The combined organic layers were washed with brine (100 mL) and dried over sodium sulfate. The organic layer was evaporated under vacuo, then the crude material was purified by column chromatography using 5-10 percent methanol in DCM as a mobile phase to give the title compound (3.0 g, 22 percent) . MS(EI)m/z: 145.8 (M+l); XH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) : δ 6.90 - 6.92 (m, 3H) , 7.67 (dd, J = 3.6 & 8.0 Hz, 1H) , 7.86 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H) , 8.16 (dd, J= 2.0 & 8.4 Hz, 1H) , 8.78 (dd, J = I.2, 4.0 Hz, 1H) .
Reference: [1] Patent: US2012/178748, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 47
[2] Patent: WO2017/14323, 2017, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0278
  • 109
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  • [ 504-63-2 ]
  • [ 142-28-9 ]
  • [ 627-30-5 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2009/773, 2008, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 18-19
  • 110
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  • [ 6168-72-5 ]
  • [ 2811-20-3 ]
  • [ 21291-99-6 ]
  • [ 109-07-9 ]
  • [ 78-90-0 ]
  • [ 108-49-6 ]
  • [ 106-55-8 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: US2010/240894, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 13-15
  • 111
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  • [ 110-85-0 ]
  • [ 107-10-8 ]
  • [ 6168-72-5 ]
  • [ 2811-20-3 ]
  • [ 109-07-9 ]
  • [ 75-04-7 ]
  • [ 75-31-0 ]
  • [ 78-90-0 ]
  • [ 78-96-6 ]
  • [ 74-89-5 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: US2010/240894, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 12
  • 112
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  • [ 1122585-40-3 ]
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  • [ 130861-85-7 ]
  • [ 136665-35-5 ]
  • [ 109-07-9 ]
  • [ 78-90-0 ]
  • [ 108-49-6 ]
  • [ 106-55-8 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: US2010/240894, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 12-13; 14
  • 113
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  • [ 6168-72-5 ]
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Reference: [1] Chemistry Letters, 2014, vol. 43, # 6, p. 822 - 824
  • 114
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Reference: [1] JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2000, vol. 77, # 11, p. 1139 - 1145
[2] Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003, vol. 51, # 7, p. 2096 - 2099
[3] Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 1987, vol. 51, # 8, p. 2153 - 2160
[4] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1933, vol. <2>136, p. 309
[5] Ann.Chim.applic., vol. 25, p. 322[6] Chem. Zentralbl., 1935, vol. 106, # II, p. 3084
[7] Biochemische Zeitschrift, 1926, vol. 177, p. 166[8] Proceedings of the Imperial Academy (Tokyo), vol. 2, p. 343[9] Chem. Zentralbl., 1926, vol. 97, # II, p. 2451
[10] Gazzetta Chimica Italiana, 1912, vol. 42 II, p. 291
[11] Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1899, vol. 18, p. 193
[12] Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1929, vol. 21, p. 953[13] Chem. Zentralbl., 1930, vol. 101, # I, p. 3840
[14] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1934, p. 670[15] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1948, p. 987
[16] Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 1995, vol. 77, # 2, p. 155 - 171
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Reference: [1] Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 1958, vol. 35, p. 416
[2] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1938, vol. 60, p. 2604
[3] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1938, vol. 60, p. 2604
[4] Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 1942, vol. 181, p. 31
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[2] Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2015, vol. 27, # 2, p. 458 - 462
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  • [ 112-61-8 ]
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  • [ 112-61-8 ]
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
55% With toluene-4-sulfonic acid; hydroquinone In diethylene glycol dimethyl ether at 140℃; for 10 h; Inert atmosphere 152 g (1.05 mol) of 3,4-dimethoxythiophene, 775 g (8.42 mol) of glycerin, 19.9 g (0.105 mol) of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate, 11.5 g (0.105 mol ) of Hydroquinone and 3.68 L of diglyme were added to a reactor, and then the inside of the reaction system was sufficiently purged with argon gas. The oxygen concentration in the reaction vessel gas atmosphere was 0.3 vol percent. Thereafter, the mixture was heated to 140 ° C and stirred for 10 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction solution was analyzed by gas chromatography and the formation rate of the target product (2) was 75percent and the formation rate of the by-product (4) was 0.5percent (molar ratio 99.3 : 0.7). 1.68 L of a 10percent sodium hydroxide aqueous solution was added and the mixture was allowed to stand for 12 hours. The solvent was distilled off and extracted three times with a toluene / saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution. The toluene layer was concentrated and dried and dissolved in 3.7 L of a mixed solvent of toluene / ethyl acetate = 4/1, and the insoluble matter was filtered off. The solvent was distilled off and dissolved in 220 g of toluene, then 220 g of hexane was further added, and the mixture was allowed to stand at about 10 ° C for 2 hours. The obtained crystals were filtered, then washed with hexane and dried under vacuum to obtain 100 g of the desired product (2) as a white precipitate (yield: 55percent). By gas chromatography, 0.5percent of the by-product (4) was contaminated, and the purity of the target product (2) was 99.5percent.
Reference: [1] Patent: JP2018/65778, 2018, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0044-0081
  • 149
  • [ 53981-24-1 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 135838-04-9 ]
Reference: [1] Monatshefte fur Chemie, 2002, vol. 133, # 11, p. 1437 - 1442
  • 150
  • [ 446-36-6 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 135838-04-9 ]
Reference: [1] Chemical Communications, 2006, # 18, p. 1941 - 1943
  • 151
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 289686-70-0 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: CN105523916, 2016, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0036; 0033; 0034; 0037
  • 152
  • [ 656-65-5 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 127827-52-5 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
85.8% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 120 - 140℃; The starting material, 3-fluoro-4-bromoaniline (20 g, 0.105 mol) And catalyst sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate (28 g, 0.124 mol, 1.2 eq) was added to a mixed solution of concentrated sulfuric acid (60 ml) and water (24 ml), heated to an internal temperature of 120 ° C, Glycerol (29 g, 0.315 mol, 3 eq) was added slowly and the reaction was warmed to 130-140 ° C overnight after the addition was complete and allowed to cool. The reaction solution was poured into crushed ice, concentrated ammonia to pH 8, extracted with dichloromethane, washed with water, After drying, column chromatography purified to give a yellow solid 20.3g, yield 85.8percent.
81% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 110 - 140℃; 4-Bromo-3-fluoroaniline (D-1, 5.0 g, 26.3 mmol) and sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate (7.1 g, 31.6 mmol)were added to the mixture of H2SO4 (20ml) and H2O (10ml). When the mixture was heated to 110C, Glycerin (7.27 g,78.9 mmol) was added slowly, then the reactionwas stirred at 140C overnight. After cooled to rt, the mixture was poured to alarge amount of ice water, concentrated ammonia water was added to adjust topH=8, then extracted with EtOAc, washed with brine and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4,then purified by flash column chromatography to afford6-bromo-7-fluoroquinoline as white solid (D-2,4.8 g, 81percent yield). LC-MS (ESI): [M+H]+=226. 1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.93 (dd, J1=4.4Hz, J2=1.6 Hz, 1H),8.12-8.02 (m, 2H), 7.81 (d, J=9.6 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J1=8.4 Hz, J2=4.4 Hz, 1H).
51.9%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid; iron(II) sulfate In nitrobenzene at 130℃; for 14 h;
Stage #2: With ammonia; water In nitrobenzene at 20℃;
Step 1: A mixture of compound A (90 g, 0.60 mol), glycerol (1800 g, 1.9 mol), ferrous sulfate (27 g, 0.0954 mol), nitrobenzene (99 mL, 0.95 mol) and concentrated sulfuric acid (261 mL, 4.77 mol) was heated at 130° C. for 14 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature and basified to pH about 8 by 28percent NH3 solution. The resulting mixture was extracted with CH2Cl2 (1000 mL.x.3). The combined organic phases was evaporated and the residue was dried in vacuo to afford crude compound B, which was purified by column chromatography (silica gel, EtOAc/Petroleum ether=1:10) to yield compound B (56 g, 51.9percent) as a yellow solid.
44% at 140℃; for 12 h; Intermediate 2: (7-fluoroquinolin-6-yl)methanamine Step 1 : 6-Bromo-7-fluoroquinoline: To a mixture of 4-bromo-2-fluoroaniline (10 g, 52.62 mmol), ferrous sulphate (3.33 g, 11.97 mmol) and glycerol (15.78 ml) con. sulphuric acid (9.15 ml) was added slowly and the reaction mixture was heated to 140°C. After 12h, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C and the pH adjusted to 10-12 with 10percent sodium hydroxide solution. The reaction mixture was filtered through celite, washed with ethyl acetate and layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with brine solution, dried over sodium sulphate and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography with ethyl acetate: petroleum ether to afford the title compound as a white solid (4.9 g, 44percent). 'H- NMR (δ ppm, CDC13, 400 MHz): δ 8.96 (dd, J = 4.3, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 8.15 (m, 2H), 7.81 (d, J = 9.5 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (dd, J = 8.3,4.3 Hz, 1H).
44%
Stage #1: at 140℃; for 12 h;
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide In water at 0℃;
Step 1:
6-Bromo-7-fluoroquinoline
To a mixture of 4-bromo-2-fluoroaniline (10 g, 52.62 mmol), ferrous sulphate (3.33 g, 11.97 mmol) and glycerol (15.78 ml) con. sulphuric acid (9.15 ml) was added slowly and the reaction mixture was heated to 140° C.
After 12 h, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C. and the pH adjusted to 10-12 with 10percent sodium hydroxide solution.
The reaction mixture was filtered through celite, washed with ethyl acetate and layers were separated.
The organic layer was washed with brine solution, dried over sodium sulphate and concentrated.
The crude product was purified by column chromatography with ethyl acetate:
petroleum ether to afford the title compound as a white solid (4.9 g, 44percent).
1H-NMR (δ ppm, CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 8.96 (dd, J=4.3, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 8.15 (m, 2H), 7.81 (d, J=9.5 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (dd, J=8.3, 4.3 Hz, 1H).
42.5% With iron(III) sulfate; sulfuric acid In nitrobenzene for 7 h; Heating / reflux Intermediate 2: 6-Bromo-7-fluoro-quinoline; [0302] A mixture of 4-bromo-3-fluoroaniline (2.85 g, 15 mmol), ferric sulfate (0.95 g, 6.25 mmol), glycerol (5.66 g, 61 mmol), nitrobenzene (0.93 mL, 9.1 mmol), and concentrated sulfuric acid (2.61ml) was heated gently. After the first vigorous reaction, the mixture was boiled for 7h. Nitrobenzene was then evaporated in vacuo. The aqueous solution was acidified with glacial acetic acid, and a dark brown precipitate separated, which was collected and purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, petroleum/ethyl acetate= 8/1) to give 1.44 g of 6-bromo-7-fluoro-quinoline as white crystals (42.5percent yield).
42.5% With sulfuric acid; iron(II) sulfate In nitrobenzene for 7 h; Heating / reflux A mixture of 4-bromo-3-fluoro-phenylamine (2.85 g, 15 m mole), ferrous sulfate (0.95 g), glycerol (5.658 g, 4.5 ml), nitrobenzene (1.125 g, 0.93 ml) and concentrated sulfuric acid (2.61 mL) were heated gently. After the first vigorous reaction, the mixture was heated to reflux for 7 hours. Nitrobenzene was evaporated in vacuo. The aqueous solution was acidified with glacial acetic acid and dark brown precipitate separated, which was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, petroleum: ethyl acetate= 8:1) to return compound title as white crystals (1.44 g, 42.5percent).
39%
Stage #1: at 130℃; for 14 h;
Stage #2: With ammonium hydroxide In waterCooling with ice
Intermediate E and F 7-Fluoro-quinoline-6-carbaldehyde and 7-(7-Fluoro-quinolin-6-yl)-methylamine 6-bromo-7-fluoro quinoline (i) To a suspension of 4-bromo-3-fluoro-phenylamine (100 g, 526 mmol) in concentrated sulfuric acid (290 ml.) was added glycerol (220 g, 2.39 mol, 4.5 eq.) followed by ferrous sulfate (30 g, 0.2 eq.). The reaction mixture was heated at 130 0C for 14 h, cooled to rt and poured into ice-water. The solution was neutralized with saturated aqueous ammonium hydroxide to pH 8 and extracted with DCM (2 L x 3). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (1 L x 3), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford the crude product as a brown solid, which was purified by column chromatography (Petroleum:Ethyl acetate=10:1 ) to give 6-bromo-7-fluoro quinoline as a white solid (45 g, 39percent). 1H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-Cf6) δ ppm 8.86 (s, 1 H), 8.56 (m, 1 H), 8.45 (m, 1 H), 7.90 (d, 1 H), 7.71 (m, 1 H).

Reference: [1] Patent: CN105968115, 2016, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0560-0562
[2] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2016, vol. 24, # 18, p. 4281 - 4290
[3] Patent: US2007/265272, 2007, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 31-32
[4] Patent: WO2013/144737, 2013, A2, . Location in patent: Paragraph 252
[5] Patent: US2015/57309, 2015, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0509
[6] Patent: WO2008/51808, 2008, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 79
[7] Patent: WO2008/144767, 2008, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 107
[8] Patent: WO2011/18454, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 57
[9] Patent: WO2011/20861, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 61
[10] Patent: US2011/281865, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 84
[11] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2017, vol. 134, p. 147 - 158
  • 153
  • [ 367-24-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 127827-52-5 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
44% at 140℃; for 12 h; To a mixture of 4-bromo-2-fluoroaniline (10 g, 52.62 mmol), ferrous sulphate (3.33 g, 11.97 mmol) and glycerol (15.78 ml), con.sulphuric acid (9.15 ml) was added slowly and the reaction mixture was heated to 140°C. After 12h, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C and the pH adjusted to 10-12 with 10percent sodium hydroxide solution. The reaction mixture was filtered through celite, washed with ethyl acetate and layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with brine solution, dried over sodium sulphate and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography with ethyl acetate: petroleum ether to afford the title compound as a white solid (4.9 g, 44percent). 'H-NMR (δ ppm, CDC13, 400 MHz): 8.96 (dd, J = 4.3, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 8.15 (m, 2H), 7.81 (d, J = 9.5 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (dd, J = 8.3,4.3 Hz, 1H).
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2011/145035, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 109-110
  • 154
  • [ 656-65-5 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 127827-52-5 ]
  • [ 127827-51-4 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2008/51808, 2008, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 79
[2] Patent: WO2008/144767, 2008, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 121
[3] Patent: WO2011/79804, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 36
  • 155
  • [ 6933-10-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 122759-89-1 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
25% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 120 - 130℃; for 1.5 h; The raw materials 3,5-difluoroaniline G-1 (5.6 g, 27 mmol) and sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate (7.2 g, 32 mmol) Was added to a mixed solution of concentrated sulfuric acid (15 mL) and water (6 mL) After heating to an internal temperature of 120 ° C, glycerol (7.4 g, 80 mmol) After the addition was completed, the temperature was raised to 130 ° C and reacted for 1.5h, then cooled. The reaction was poured into crushed ice, concentrated ammonia water to adjust the pH to 5 ~ 6, the precipitated solid was filtered off, washed with water, After drying, column chromatography gave 3.82 g of white solid compound G-2 in 58percent yield. A mixture of 6-bromo-7-methylquinoline (I-2) and 6-bromo-5-methylquinoline (J-1) was synthesized. Then separated by supercritical preparative chromatography (SFC), IC-H column, mobile phase: isopropanol / carbon dioxide = 18/82, detection wavelength: 254nm. The first fraction was collected as 6-bromo-7-methylquinoline (I-2) as a white solid, yield: 25percent. The second fraction was collected as a 6-bromo-5-methylquinoline (J-1) white solid in a yield of 20percent
Reference: [1] Patent: CN105968115, 2016, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0492; 0518-0520
[2] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2016, vol. 24, # 18, p. 4281 - 4290
  • 156
  • [ 6933-10-4 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 122759-89-1 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
31%
Stage #1: With iron(III) sulfate; sulfuric acid In nitrobenzene for 3 h; Heating / reflux
Stage #2: With water; sodium hydrogencarbonate In nitrobenzene
Intermediate 4: 6-Bromo-7-methyl-quinoline; [0304] A mixture of 4-bromo-3-methylaniline (20 g, 107.5 mmol), ferric sulfate (6.6 g, 43.4 mmol), glycerol (40.8 g, 440 mmol), nitrobenzene (8.12 g, 66 mmol), and concentrated EPO <DP n="81"/>sulfuric acid (23 ml) was heated gently. After the first vigorous reaction, the mixture was boiled for 3h and then evaporated to remove the excess nitrobenzene. The solution was added a saturated aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate until pH=7-8, then the solution was filtered and extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organic layers were dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The solid was purified by flash column chromatography to give a yellow solid, which was further washed with petroleum ether to give 7.5 g of 6-bromo-7-methyl-quinoline (31percent yield): 1H NMR (CDCl3): 2.60 (s, 3H), 7.36 (m, IH), 7.96 (s, IH), 8.04 (m, 2H), 8.89 (m, IH).
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2008/51808, 2008, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 79-80
  • 157
  • [ 367-24-8 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 220513-46-2 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
96.9%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 110℃;
Stage #2: at 95 - 140℃;
Stage #3: With ammonia In water
A solution of concentrated sulphuric acid (63 ml, 820 mmol) in water (49.4 ml) was treated with sodium 3-nitro-benzenesulfonate (commercially available, for example, from Aldrich) (47.9 g, 213 mmol) and glycerol (commercially available, for example, from Fluka) (52 ml, 720 mmol) to give a thick grey suspension. This was heated to 110 0C. 4-Bromo-2- fluoroaniline (commercially available, for example, from Fluorochem) (38 g, 200 mmol) was added portion wise over 10 min, during which the temperature rose to 95 0C. The reaction was heated to 140 0C and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled and then poured into water (1000 ml) and basified to pH 7 with aqueous ammonia (0.88 s.g., 190 ml). The brown precipitated that formed was collected by filtration and partially dried. This solid <n="50"/>(63 g) was loaded onto a Silica column (1500 ml) and eluted with EtOAc to give the title compound (43.8 g, 96.9percent) LCMS RT = 2.87 min, ES+ve m/z 226/228 [M+H]+.
88% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 95 - 140℃; A solution of concentrated H2504 (0.63 ml, ii .82 mmoi) in H20 (0.48 ml, 26.6 mmoi) was treated with 3-Nitrohenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt ( 0.48g. 2.132 nrniol) and glycerol (0.516 ml. 706 mmoi) to give a thick grey suspension, the mixture was heated to 110 °C. 4-Bromo2fluoroaniline was added portion wise over 10 mm, during which the temperature rose to 95 °C. The reaction was heated to 140 °C and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled and then poured into water and basified to pH 7 with aqueous ammonia. The brown precipitated that formed was collected by filtration and partially dried. This solid (0.63 g) was purified by flash column chromatography givethe 6-bromo-8-fluoroquinohne (04 g, 1770 mmoi, 88 percent yield) compound.
81.2% With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 110 - 140℃; Glycerol (14.5 g, 158 mmol) And the catalyst sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate (14.2 g, 63 mmol) were added to the sulfuric acid Aqueous solution (20 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid + 15 mL of water), The mixture was heated to 110 ° C and 2-fluoro-4-bromoaniline C-1 (10 g, 52.6 mmol) was added slowly and stirred at 140 ° C overnight. After dropping to room temperature, pour into crushed ice, adjust the pH to about 8 with concentrated aqueous ammonia, extract with ethyl acetate, wash with water, Washed with saturated saline, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated to dryness. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to obtain 9.65 g of white solid compound C-2, yield 81.2percent
60%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid; sodium 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate In water at 135℃;
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide In waterCooling with ice
5.00 g (26.3 mmol) of 4-bromo-2-fluoroaniline, 5.31 g (57.89 mmol) glycerol and 9.89 g (43.94 mmol) of 3-nitrophenylsulfonic acid-sodium salt were prepared and homogenized. Then 25 ml of 70percent sulfuric acid was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred overnight at 135°C. The cooled black reaction mixture was made alkaline, cautiously and with ice cooling, with 50percent sodium hydroxide solution, and then filtered on a large bed of silica gel and kieselguhr. It was washed again with water and ethyl acetate. The phases collected were combined, then the organic phase was separated. The aqueous phase that remained was then extracted with ethyl acetate (2x). Then the organic phases thus obtained and the phase already separated previously were combined. It was dried over magnesium sulfate and the volatile components were removed in a rotary evaporator. The residue was finally purified by MPLC (Puriflash Analogix: 4OM: isohexane / ethyl acetate = 4 / 1). We obtained 3.56 g (60percent of theor.) of the target compound. IH-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6): δ [ppm] = 7.70 (dd, 2H), 7.89 (dd, IH), 8.17 (s, IH), 8.44 (d, IH), 9.00 (d, IH).

Reference: [1] Patent: WO2009/50204, 2009, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 15; 48-49
[2] Patent: WO2018/116072, 2018, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 97; 98
[3] Patent: CN105968115, 2016, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0449-0451
[4] Patent: WO2010/20363, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 131-132
[5] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, vol. 53, # 10, p. 4066 - 4084
  • 158
  • [ 67-56-1 ]
  • [ 52130-17-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 1030846-94-6 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: EP2096109, 2009, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 22
  • 159
  • [ 2924-09-6 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 1133115-78-2 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2010/30722, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 41-42
  • 160
  • [ 703-91-3 ]
  • [ 56-81-5 ]
  • [ 1239460-75-3 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
48%
Stage #1: at 120℃; for 4 h;
Stage #2: With water; sodium hydroxide In ethanol; ethyl acetate; nitrobenzene at 20℃;
To a mixture of 5-bromo-2-(trifluoromethyl)aniline (3.0g, 12.6mmol), glycerol (4.64g, 50.0mmol), and ferrous sulfate (0.56 g, 2.0mmol) was added cone, sulfuric acid (2.2mL) dropwise. The reaction mixture was heated at 120 0C for 4hr. After cooled to RT, the reaction was diluted with ethyl acetate (15OmL), and 2N aq. NaOH was introduced to adjust pH about 13. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine and dried over Na2SO4 and evaporated to give the crude product, which was purified with flash column chromatography to give 5-bromo- 8-(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (1.2g, 48percent).
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2010/91310, 2010, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 101
[2] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2011, vol. 21, # 18, p. 5521 - 5527