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Chemical Structure| 100-51-6
Chemical Structure| 100-51-6
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Product Details of [ 100-51-6 ]

CAS No. :100-51-6 MDL No. :MFCD00004599
Formula : C7H8O Boiling Point : -
Linear Structure Formula :- InChI Key :WVDDGKGOMKODPV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
M.W : 108.14 Pubchem ID :244
Synonyms :
Benzenemethanol

Calculated chemistry of [ 100-51-6 ]

Physicochemical Properties

Num. heavy atoms : 8
Num. arom. heavy atoms : 6
Fraction Csp3 : 0.14
Num. rotatable bonds : 1
Num. H-bond acceptors : 1.0
Num. H-bond donors : 1.0
Molar Refractivity : 32.57
TPSA : 20.23 Ų

Pharmacokinetics

GI absorption : High
BBB permeant : Yes
P-gp substrate : No
CYP1A2 inhibitor : Yes
CYP2C19 inhibitor : No
CYP2C9 inhibitor : No
CYP2D6 inhibitor : No
CYP3A4 inhibitor : No
Log Kp (skin permeation) : -6.18 cm/s

Lipophilicity

Log Po/w (iLOGP) : 1.66
Log Po/w (XLOGP3) : 1.1
Log Po/w (WLOGP) : 1.03
Log Po/w (MLOGP) : 1.54
Log Po/w (SILICOS-IT) : 1.74
Consensus Log Po/w : 1.41

Druglikeness

Lipinski : 0.0
Ghose : None
Veber : 0.0
Egan : 0.0
Muegge : 2.0
Bioavailability Score : 0.55

Water Solubility

Log S (ESOL) : -1.69
Solubility : 2.2 mg/ml ; 0.0203 mol/l
Class : Very soluble
Log S (Ali) : -1.12
Solubility : 8.25 mg/ml ; 0.0763 mol/l
Class : Very soluble
Log S (SILICOS-IT) : -2.16
Solubility : 0.746 mg/ml ; 0.0069 mol/l
Class : Soluble

Medicinal Chemistry

PAINS : 0.0 alert
Brenk : 0.0 alert
Leadlikeness : 1.0
Synthetic accessibility : 1.0

Safety of [ 100-51-6 ]

Signal Word:Warning Class:N/A
Precautionary Statements:P261-P305+P351+P338 UN#:N/A
Hazard Statements:H302-H315-H319-H335 Packing Group:N/A
GHS Pictogram:

Application In Synthesis of [ 100-51-6 ]

* All experimental methods are cited from the reference, please refer to the original source for details. We do not guarantee the accuracy of the content in the reference.

  • Upstream synthesis route of [ 100-51-6 ]
  • Downstream synthetic route of [ 100-51-6 ]

[ 100-51-6 ] Synthesis Path-Upstream   1~148

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Reference: [1] Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, 2005, vol. 347, # 10, p. 1395 - 1403
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2007, vol. 72, # 24, p. 9353 - 9356
  • 3
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  • [ 13590-42-6 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: CN107129501, 2017, A,
[2] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2018, vol. 24, # 54, p. 14373 - 14377
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Reference: [1] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 8
[2] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 9-10
[3] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 9
[4] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 9
[5] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 9
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Reference: [1] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 8
[2] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 9-10
[3] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 9
[4] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 9
[5] Patent: JP2005/112761, 2005, A, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 9
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
74% With hydrogenchloride In water at 90℃; for 3 h; Inert atmosphere To a solution of N-acetylglucosamine (6.40 g, 28.9 mmol)in benzyl alcohol (50 mL, 480 mmol), concd aq HCl (3.0 mL) wasadded and the reaction mixture was stirred at 90 C for 3 h. Thecrude mixture was cooled down to rt, poured into Et2O (500 mL)and left to crystallize at 4 C for 18 h. The crystalline product wasfiltered and washed with petroleum ether. Purification by silica gelcolumn chromatography (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 95:5/88:12, v/v) gavebenzyl glycoside 2 (6.67 g, 21.4 mmol, 74percent) as a white foam.Rf0.25 (CH2Cl2/MeOH, 90:10, v/v); mp 182e184 C; [a]D17.8 222(c 0.1, MeOH); IR (film) 3298, 3092, 2938, 2901, 2844, 1648, 1552,1497, 1455, 1375, 1309, 1230, 1156, 1093, 1047, 778, 732, 695 cm1;1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) d 7.40e7.25 (m, 5H, CHarom), 4.85 (d,1H, J10,203.6 Hz, H-10), 4.74 (d, 1H, J1a,1b12.0 Hz, H-1a), 4.49 (d,1H, J1a,1b12.0 Hz, H-1b), 3.89 (dd, 1H, J10,203.6 Hz, J20,3010.8 Hz,H-20), 3.83 (dd, 1H, J50,6a01.6 Hz, J6a0,6b011.4 Hz, H-6a0), 3.73e3.64(m, 3H, H-6b0, H-30, H-40), 3.36 (dd, 1H, J40,50J50,6b09.6 Hz, H-50),1.95 (s, 3H, CH3 Ac); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD) d 173.6 (C]O Ac),139.0 (Cqarom), 129.4 (C-oarom), 129.3 (C-marom), 128.8 (C-parom),97.5 (C-10), 74.1 (C-40), 72.7 (C-30), 72.5 (C-50), 70.1 (C-1), 62.7 (C-60), 55.4 (C-20), 22.5 (CH3 Ac); HRMS(ESI) m/z calcd for[C15H22NO6]: 312.1442, obsd: 312.1446.
72% With toluene-4-sulfonic acid In toluene at 130℃; for 4 h; Dean-Stark N-acetylglucosamine (1) (10 g, 0.045 mol) and benzylalcohol (72 mL) were suspended in toluene (120 mL)and p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate (500 mg) wasadded. The reaction mixture was refluxed (130 °C) in aDean-Stark apparatus with water removal by azeotropicmixture. After 4 h, the reaction mixture was cooled toambient temperature and saturated solution of sodiumhydrogen carbonate was added to pH ~ 6. Toluene wasremoved under reduced pressure. Residue was split intoether-hexane (vol. ratio = 2:1, 260 mL) mixture. Reactionmixture was vigorously stirred for 3h and left overnightin refrigerator. The amorphous precipitate wasfiltered off, washed with ether and the crude product recrystallizedfrom 2-propanol to yield colourless crystals2 (10.1 g, 72percent yield). Rf (A) = 0.42; m.p. 186–187 °C(lit. 185–186 °C)20; [α]D = +170 ° c 1, water (lit. [α]D =+168 ° c 1, water)20; 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ/ppm: 7.81(d, 1H, J = 8.2 Hz, NH), 7.35–7.28 (m, 5H, Ph), 5.01 (d,1H, J = 5.8 Hz, OH-4), 4.73 (d, 1H, J = 5.8 Hz, OH-3),4.70 (d, 1H, J = 3.2 Hz, H-1), 4.66 (d, 1H, J = 12.3 Hz,CH2b-Ph), 4.54 (t, 1H, J = 5.8 Hz, OH-6), 4.41 (d, 1H,J = 12.3 Hz, CH2a-Ph), 3.68 (m, 1H, H-2), 3.65 (m, 1H,H-6b), 3.53 (m, 1H, H-3), 3.50 (m, 1H, H-6a), 3.45 (m,1H, H-5), 3.16 (m, 1H, H-4), 1.83 (s, 3H, CH3-CON acetyl); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ/ppm: 169.4 (CO acetyl),137.9 (Ph (C)), 128.1–127.4 (Ph(CH)), 95.9 (C-1),73.1 (C-5), 70.9 (C-4), 70.6 (C-3), 67.7 (CH2-Ph), 60.8(C-6), 53.7 (C-2), 22.5 (CH3-CON acetyl); MS-ESI m/z312 [M+H]+.
71% With hydrogenchloride In water at 90℃; for 3 h; Inert atmosphere N-Acetyl glucosamine 7 (6.00 g, 27.1 mmol) was dissolved in benzyl alcohol(50 mL) and concentrated HCl (2.9 mL) was added. The mixture was heatedto 90C for 3 h, cooled to rt, and then poured onto 500 mL Et2O and storedovernight at −20C. The resulting precipitate was recovered by filtration andrinsed with Et2O and hexanes to yield 17.64 g of crude material, which waspurified by silica gel chromatography (8percent to 15percent MeOH/CH2Cl2) to provide11 (5.98 g, 71percent) as white foam. Comparison of 1H NMR with literature valuesconfirmed the identity of compound 11.[28] 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD), δ 1.95(s, 3H, COCH3), 3.37–3.39 (m, 1H), 3.69–3.73 (m, 3H), 3.82 (d, 1H, J3 = 9.5 Hz),3.89 (dd, 1H, J3 = 3.5, 11 Hz), 4.49 (d, 1H, J3 = 12 Hz), 4.74 (d, 1H, J3 =11.5 Hz), 7.28–7.40 (m, 5H, aromatic).
27% at 80℃; for 3.5 h; A mixture of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose [Compound Ij (15.0 g, 0.068 mol), Amberlite JR 120 [Hj ion exchange resin (15.0 g) in benzyl alcohol (125 mL) was stirred at 80°C for 3.5 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered. The filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure at 90°C. The residue was taken up in hot isopropanol (60 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was left to crystallize, thewhite crystalline solid was filtered off, washed twice with cold isopropanol (20 mL) and twice with ether (200mL) to give benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D- glucopyranoside [Compound JJj (5.62 g, yield 27percent).
15%
Stage #1: With boron trifluoride diethyl etherate In acetonitrile at 20℃;
Stage #2: With bacterial β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase from Zobellia galactanivorans In aq. phosphate buffer at 37℃; for 24 h; Enzymatic reaction
General procedure: The purified α/β mixtures 2a/3a, 2b/3b, 2c/3c, 2d/3d, or 2e/3e were dissolved inNa3PO4/citratebuffer (50mM, pH8.0) and0.1UofZgβHexN2854 hexosaminidasewere added (final volume 5 mL). The reaction mixture was incubated at 37 ° for12 h in the case of 2a/3a, 2b/3b, 2c/3c, and2d/3d and 24 h in the case of 2e/3e. Then,the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was subjected tosilica-gel column chromatography. 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, and 2e were obtained as whitesolids by eluting them with an AcOEt/MeOH 9:1 mixture (Yields: 2a: 32percent, 2b: 53percent,2c: 44percent, 2d: 9percent, 2e: 15percent).

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[14] Arkivoc, 2012, vol. 2012, # 6, p. 90 - 100
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[17] Patent: WO2017/98529, 2017, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 18; 34
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Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2011, vol. 13, # 19, p. 5306 - 5309
[2] Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1991, # 12, p. 1291 - 1300
[3] Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1958, vol. 611, p. 236,239
[4] Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 1982, vol. 47, # 11, p. 2989 - 2995
[5] Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2009, vol. 7, # 6, p. 1203 - 1210
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
26 % de With boron trifluoride diethyl etherate In acetonitrile at 20℃; General procedure: To a solution of 1 (100 mg, 0.45 mmol) in acetonitrile (15 mL) and the correspondingalcohol (20mmol, methanol (a), ethanol (b), 2-propanol (c), n-butanol (d), orbenzyl alcohol (e)), boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (300μL, 2.3mmol) was added.The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then, the solventwas evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was then subjected to silica-gelcolumn chromatography. The α/β mixture of the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine derivativewas obtained as a white solid by eluting the compound with an AcOEt/MeOH9:1 mixture (2a/3a 51:49 mixture: 74percent yield, 2b/3b 80:20 mixture: 68percent yield, 2c/3c82:18 mixture: 58percent yield, 2d/3d 87:13 mixture: 18percent yield, 2e/3e 63:37 mixture: 25percentyield).
Reference: [1] Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1986, vol. 1986, # 1, p. 37 - 45
[2] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2008, vol. 51, # 18, p. 5807 - 5812
[3] Carbohydrate Research, 2011, vol. 346, # 14, p. 2294 - 2299
[4] Glycoconjugate Journal, 2010, vol. 27, # 5, p. 549 - 559
[5] Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, 2016, vol. 35, # 8-9, p. 423 - 434
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[2] Tetrahedron Letters, 2007, vol. 48, # 25, p. 4403 - 4405
[3] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1990, vol. 55, # 24, p. 6051 - 6054
[4] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2009, vol. 15, # 5, p. 1261 - 1271
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[3] Chemical Communications, 2016, vol. 52, # 67, p. 10241 - 10244
[4] Chemical Communications, 2016, vol. 52, # 67, p. 10241 - 10244
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[2] Tetrahedron Letters, 2006, vol. 47, # 15, p. 2619 - 2622
[3] Tetrahedron Letters, 1994, vol. 35, # 5, p. 665 - 668
[4] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1995, vol. 60, # 16, p. 5352 - 5355
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[2] ChemSusChem, 2016, vol. 9, # 1, p. 67 - 74
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
92% at 80 - 90℃; for 5 h; Benzyl alcohol (37.5 g, 0.347 mol) and sodium hydroxide (2.96 g, 0.074 mol) were mixed and heated, and sodium hydroxide was dissolved. After cooling, 2-amino-6-chloropurine (6.00 g, 0.035 mol) was added, and the reaction was completed by heating and stirring at 80-90 C for 5 hr. Methyl tert- butyl ether (120 ml) was added to the reaction mixture, and the mixture was extracted twice with queous sodium hydroxide solution (70 ml). The obtained aqueous alkali layers were combined, washed with toluene, and after removing toluene, neutralized with 35percent hydrochloric acid to pH 6-8. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The obtained crystals were dried under reduced pressure to give 2- amino-6-benzyloxypurine (7.60 g, 0.032 mol, yield 92percent) as crude crystals.
62% With sodium hydride In mineral oil at 60℃; for 12 h; Inert atmosphere 6OBenzylguanine (3). Sodium hydride (1.2 g, 35.4 mmol,55percent suspension in mineral oil) was added to benzyl alcohol(50 mL) with vigorous stirring under argon. Then, 2amino6chloropurin (2.0 g, 11.8 mmol) was added to the suspensionobtained. The reaction mixture was heated to 60 C and stirredfor 12 h. After cooling, glacial acetic acid (1.4 mL, 24.3 mmol)was added to the suspension. The resulting mixture was extracted with 2 M solution of sodium hydroxide (5×5 mL). The organic phase was diluted with diethyl ether (100 mL) and again extracted with 2 M solution of sodium hydroxide (10×10 mL). Theaqueous layers were combined, washed with diethyl ether(50 mL), glacial acetic acid was added to neutralize the solution(pH 7). Then, the solution was allowed to stand for 12 h at 4 C.A precipitate formed was filtered and washed with water. Afterrecrystallization (ethanol—water (1 : 1)), the crystals were driedin vacuo. The yield was 1.76 g (62percent), yellow crystals, m.p.201—202 C. 1H NMR (DMSOd6, 300 MHz), : 12.25 (br.s,1 H, N(9)HGua); 7.82 (s, 1 H, C(8)HGua); 7.56—7.21 (m, 5 H,Ph); 6.29 (s, 2 H, NH2Gua); 5.48 (s, 2 H, CH2Ph(Bn)). 13C NMR(DMSOd6, 75 MHz), : 159.7, 159.6, 156.1, 138.5, 136.8,128.1, 126.5, 112.8, 66.7. Found (percent): C, 56.0; H, 4.8; N, 27.5.C12H11N5O•H2O. Calculated (percent): C, 55.6; H, 5.1; N, 27.0. MS(ESI), found: m/z 243.1033 [M + H]+. C12H12N5O. Calculated:M = 242.1042.
28% for 4 h; Reflux General procedure: Sodium or sodium hydride (7-10 mmol) was dissolved inthe appropriate alcohol (5-10 mL). Following the dissolutionand the hydrogen production, 2-amino-6-chloropurine (3) (1-3 mmol) was added and the mixture was refluxed for 4 hthen stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was acidified to pH 6 with glacial acetic acid and extracted withdiethylether (3 X 10 mL). The combined organic layers weredried over anhydrous MgSO4, and the solvent was removedunder vacuum. When necessary, the crude product was purifiedwith flash or circular chromatography with a mixture ofdichloromethane/methanol as eluent.
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
92%
Stage #1: at 80℃;
Stage #2: at 90℃; for 5 h;
2-Amino-6-benzyloxypurine, 10; Benzyl alcohol (37.5 g, 347 mmol) and sodium hydroxide (2.96 g, 74 mmol) were mixed and sodium hydroxide was dissolved on heating at 80°C. After cooling, 2-amino- 6-chloropurine (6.0 g, 35 mmol) was added, and the mixture was heated at 900C for 5 h under stirring. After cooling, EtOAc (120 ml) was added to the reaction mixture, and the mixture was extracted twice with 1percent aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (70 mL). The aqueous alkali layers were combined, washed with EtOAc and then treated with 35percent hydrochloric acid until pH 6-8. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried under reduced pressure, to give 2-amino-6-benzyloxypurine 10 (7.6 g, yield: 92percent) as a white powder: 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3): δ 5.46 (s, 2H), 6.24 (br s, 2H, NH), 7.24 - 7.54 (m, 5 ArH), 7.81 (s, IH), 12.43 (br s, IH, NH).
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2008/101514, 2008, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 42
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Reference: [1] Patent: CN107098906, 2017, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0052; 0056; 0057; 0061; 0062; 0063; 0064
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[2] Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 1994, vol. 59, # 5, p. 1153 - 1174
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Reference: [1] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 1999, vol. 34, # 7-8, p. 625 - 638
[2] Patent: WO2008/64218, 2008, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 72; 83-85; 86-87; 98-99; 125
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  • [ 23405-15-4 ]
Reference: [1] Chemistry Letters, 2006, vol. 35, # 6, p. 566 - 567
[2] RSC Advances, 2013, vol. 3, # 44, p. 21306 - 21310
[3] Tetrahedron Letters, 2012, vol. 53, # 38, p. 5094 - 5098
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  • [ 65-85-0 ]
Reference: [1] Angewandte Chemie - International Edition, 2002, vol. 41, # 21, p. 4059 - 4061
  • 33
  • [ 3934-20-1 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 108381-28-8 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
75%
Stage #1: With potassium <i>tert</i>-butylate In tetrahydrofuran for 0.5 h; Reflux
Stage #2: at -78℃; for 1 h;
Step 1. A mixture formed by 2.26 g (20.1 mmol, 1 equiv.) of potass tert-butoxide and 4.3 g (40.2 mmol, 2 equiv.) of compound phenylmethanol in 10 ml of THF was heated under reflux temperature for half an hour. The reaction mixture was cooled down to 0 0C and slowly added drop-wise to 3 g (20.1 mmol, 1 equiv.) of 2,4-dichloropyrimidine dissolved in 15 ml of N,N- dimethyl formamide, maintaining the temperature below -78 0C. After stirring for one hour, it was left to reach room temperature. The mixture was added drop-wise to 100 ml of cold water, obtaining white solid 4-(benzyloxy)-2-chloropyrimidine (3.3 g, 75percent). The compound was determination by LC-MS (LC-MS (m/z) =222.0 [M+H]+)
24%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In tetrahydrofuran; mineral oil at 1 - 2℃; for 0.5 h;
Stage #2: at 1 - 2℃; for 3.5 h;
To a cooled (1-2° C.) suspension of sodium hydride (60percent in mineral oil) (1.5 equiv) in 250 ml THF, benzyl alcohol (1.0 equiv.) was added dropwise and the mixture stirred 30 min under N2.
This suspension was then added in small portions (via syringe, over 1 hr) to a solution of 2,4-dichloropyrimidine (1.5 equiv.) in THF also at 1-2° C. (internal thermometer).
The resulting mixture (0.06 M) was stirred at temp <2° C. for 2.5 hrs, then quenched with NH4Cl(sat.) and extracted with EtOAc.
Upon separation, the organic layer was washed with NaCl(sat.), dried over Na2SO4, concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (hexanes/DCM eluant) to yield 4-(benzyloxy)-2-chloropyrimidine (24percent). LC/MS=221.0 (M+H), LC=3.93 min.
Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2017, vol. 19, # 7, p. 1854 - 1857
[2] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2017, vol. 23, # 58, p. 14563 - 14575
[3] Patent: WO2011/19405, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 107
[4] Patent: US2011/195980, 2011, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 28
[5] Patent: EP1564212, 2005, A1, . Location in patent: Page 13
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  • 35
  • [ 100-02-7 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 103-14-0 ]
  • [ 588-53-4 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
82% at 24.84℃; for 8 h; Irradiation General procedure: A quantity of 20 mg of catalyst was placed in a 20 mL Schrunkglass bottle (1) which was filled with N2 at a pressure of 1 bar. Benzylalcohols (5 mmol) and nitroarenes (0.5 mmol) were mixed fullyin a Schrunk glass bottle (2) and nitrogen was bubbled to removedissolved oxygen molecules. The mixed solution was transferredto bottle (1) under 1 atm N2 and stirred to make the catalyst blendevenly in the solution. The suspensions were irradiated by a 300WXe arc lamp (PLS-SXE300, Beijing Perfect Light Co.), and an IR-cutfilter was used to remove all wavelengths longer than 800 nm.After the reaction, the mixture was centrifuged to completelyremove the catalyst particles. The remaining solution was determinedby an Agilent online gas chromatograph (GC 6890, FID) withan HP-5973 mass spectrometer. An HP-5 column (length 30 m;inner diameter 320 mm; film thickness 0.25 mm) was applied forseparation of product. Helium (purity 99.999percent) was used as thecarrier gas at a constant flow rate of 20 mL min-1. The temperaturesof the injector and detector were maintained at 280 and300 °C, respectively. The pressure of injection was set at 8.363psi. The column temperature was programmed from 40 to 180 °Cat 15 °C/min, and then up to 280 °C at 15 °C/min, and held 5 min.The injection volume was 5 μl. Conversion of nitroarenes andselectivity for secondary amines were as follows:
Reference: [1] Journal of Catalysis, 2018, vol. 361, p. 105 - 115
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Reference: [1] New Journal of Chemistry, 2015, vol. 39, # 4, p. 2467 - 2473
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Reference: [1] Angewandte Chemie, 1977, vol. 89, p. 570 - 572
[2] Synthesis, 1976, p. 329 - 330
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
90%
Stage #1: With potassium <i>tert</i>-butylate In tetrahydrofuran at 0℃; for 0.5 h;
Stage #2: at 0℃; for 24 h;
11 g of benzyl alcohol (0.1 mol) and 11.4 g of potassium t-butoxide (first catalyst, 0.1 mol) were added to 150 mL of anhydrous THF at 0 ° C, and stirred for 30 min.The first mixture was obtained. Drop the ring into the first mixture at 0 ° COxypropane is subjected to a ring opening reaction and stirred for 24 hours, wherein benzyl alcohol,The molar ratio of propylene oxide to the first catalyst was 1:1:1. Adjusting the pH of the above ring-opening reaction system to 7 with a 30 wtpercent aqueous solution of dilute acetic acid.After THF was spin-dried, 300 mL of ethyl acetate was added for extraction.The organic phase was washed 3 times with 100 mL of purified water.Then dried with 25 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate for 3 h, after filtering the desiccant,The organic phase was dried to ethyl acetate: n-heptane = 1:5 column chromatographyThere was obtained 13.8 g of a colorless oil (ring-opening product) in a yield of 90percent by weight.
Reference: [1] Patent: CN108276355, 2018, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0110; 0111; 0112; 0113
[2] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2006, vol. 128, # 16, p. 5360 - 5361
[3] Applied Catalysis A: General, 2011, vol. 408, # 1-2, p. 125 - 129
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[2] Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2012, vol. 10, # 8, p. 1598 - 1601
[3] European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2017, vol. 2017, # 3, p. 695 - 703
[4] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2017, vol. 60, # 12, p. 5162 - 5192
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[2] ACH - Models in Chemistry, 1997, vol. 134, # 2-3, p. 241 - 252
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[2] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1933, vol. 55, p. 4639,4640
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[2] Roczniki Chemii, 1974, vol. 48, p. 277 - 286
[3] Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements, 2008, vol. 183, # 2-3, p. 610 - 616
[4] Organic Letters, 2012, vol. 14, # 8, p. 2126 - 2129
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[2] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1945, p. 382,384
[3] Biochemical Preparations, 1957, vol. 5, p. 1,2
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  • 61
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  • [ 2177-63-1 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
90%
Stage #1: With sulfuric acid In diethyl ether
Stage #2: at 25℃; for 24 h;
In a 500mL beaker by adding 100mL of anhydrous ether, and then slowly add 20mL concentrated sulfuric acid, while the side of the edge of the stirring, such as coldBut to room temperature,Add 150mL benzyl alcohol, stir well,The ether was removed under reduced pressure and then 26 g of aspartic acid was added in 5 batchesTo the reaction flask. Room temperature stir the reaction 24h,Then add 300 mL of 95percent ethanol and drop 80 mL with a dropping funnelPyridine, edge dripping vigorously stirring, and then frozen through the refrigerator overnight, filter to get solid, solid 80 ethanol stirring dissolved, heatFiltered, the filtrate was frozen for 8 h, filtered and lyophilized to obtain pure β-aspartic acid benzyl ester (90percent yield).
64%
Stage #1: at 60℃; for 12 h;
Stage #2: With ammonia In ethanol; water at 40 - 60℃; for 2 h;
EXAMPLE 3
Preparation of β-benzyl L-aspartate
100 g (0.75 mol, 1 eq.) of L-aspartic acid and 162 g (1.5 mol, 2 eq.) of benzyl alcohol are introduced into a fitted-out 1 litre reactor and the mixture is stirred. 86.4 g (0.9 mol, 1.2 eq.) of methanesulphonic acid are subsequently introduced gradually while allowing the temperature to rise.The temperature is brought by heating to 60° C., stirring of the mixture is continued for 12 hours and then the mixture is cooled to 40° C.
200 ml of water are subsequently added, then 300 ml of ethanol are added and subsequently 95 ml of 22° B aqueous ammonia are added, so as to precipitate the ester at a PH of 6.5-7.
The mixture is subsequently heated to 60° C. and is stirred at this temperature for 2 hours to improve the crystalline form of the product.
It is cooled to a temperature of 5° C.-10° C.
The crystalline precipitate is filtered off and washed twice with 100 ml of ethanol and 3 times with 100 ml of water.
A wet product is collected and is dried under vacuum. 108 g (64percent yield) of β-benzyl L-aspartate are thus obtained, the characteristics of which are as follows:
Appearance: white powder.
Melting point: 212° C.
[α]D20: +27.6° (read at 1percent in HCl 1N).
41% With sulfuric acid In water at 70℃; for 2.5 h; L-Aspartic acid (1b) (50 g, 0.38 mol), benzyl alcohol (125 g, 1.16 mol), a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid (40.5 g) and water (10 g) were mixed in a water bath at 70 °C for 0.5 h to give a clear solution, which was stirred for s further 2 h. The resulting solution was evaporated in vacuo to an oily product, which was added to a cold solution containing sodium hydrogen carbonate (70 g) and water (250 mL) at 0 °C. The obtained cooled solution was mixed with ether (150 mL) to give a precipitate, which was filtered and washed with cold water to give another precipitate (88 g). This was recrystallized twice with water to give 34 g (41 percent). m.p. 218-219 °C (lit.23) 222 °C).
Reference: [1] Journal of Natural Products, 2017, vol. 80, # 7, p. 2136 - 2140
[2] Patent: CN107129501, 2017, A, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0009; 0010; 0011
[3] Synthesis and Reactivity in Inorganic, Metal-Organic and Nano-Metal Chemistry, 2011, vol. 41, # 5, p. 459 - 464
[4] Patent: US2004/133033, 2004, A1, . Location in patent: Page 4-5
[5] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2018, vol. 24, # 54, p. 14373 - 14377
[6] Synthesis, 1987, # 7, p. 635 - 637
[7] Archiv der Pharmazie, 2001, vol. 334, # 6, p. 189 - 193
[8] Archiv der Pharmazie, 2006, vol. 339, # 6, p. 283 - 290
[9] Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2014, vol. 26, # 19, p. 6541 - 6548
[10] Nippon Kagaku Zasshi, 1958, vol. 79, p. 420,423[11] Chem.Abstr., 1960, p. 4408
[12] Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 1962, vol. 40, p. 570 - 572
[13] Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 1967, vol. 40, # 7, p. 1709 - 1715
[14] Indian Journal of Chemistry, 1965, vol. 3, p. 554 - 558
[15] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 1963, vol. 52, p. 847 - 851
[16] Phosphorus, Sulfur and Silicon and the Related Elements, 1995, vol. 105, # 1-4, p. 129 - 144
[17] Doklady Chemistry, 2006, vol. 408, # 1, p. 57 - 60
[18] Patent: CN104725645, 2017, B, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0040-0043
[19] Russian Chemical Bulletin, 2017, vol. 66, # 11, p. 2057 - 2065[20] Izv. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Khim., 2017, vol. 66, # 11, p. 2057 - 2065,9
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[2] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1999, vol. 64, # 2, p. 478 - 487
[3] Journal of Chemical Research, 2005, # 5, p. 332 - 334
[4] Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 1938, vol. 57, p. 1234,1246
[5] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1952, vol. 17, p. 149,153
[6] Bulletin des Societes Chimiques Belges, 1978, vol. 87, p. 721 - 732
[7] Synthesis, 2000, # 12, p. 1749 - 1755
[8] Organic Letters, 2011, vol. 13, # 15, p. 3814 - 3817
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[2] Journal of the Korean Chemical Society, 2010, vol. 54, # 1, p. 131 - 136
[3] Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 2014, vol. 391, # 1, p. 55 - 65
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[2] Journal of the Chemical Society, 1950, p. 322,424
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[4] Journal fuer Praktische Chemie (Leipzig), 1980, vol. 322, # 4, p. 685 - 694
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
90 %Chromat. With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In dichloromethane at 0 - 20℃; for 12 h; Inert atmosphere General procedure: To a stirred solution of N-protected-L-asparagin 1a-c (0.10 mmol) and alcohol or amine 2a-n (0.12 mmol) inDCM (5 mL), EDC.HCl (0.30 mmol) and DMAP (0.02 mmol) were added at 0 oC. This reaction mixture was stirred for 12h at room temperature. Then the reaction mixture was poured in H2O (10 mL) and extracted with DCM (20 mL). The organic phase was separated, dried, and subjected to flash column chromatography (EtOAc–hexane, 1: 4) to afford the desired compounds as white solids.
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
93.8% With dmap; triethylamine In dichloromethane at 20℃; a)
Succinic acid monobenzyl ester
To the ice-cooled solution of benzyl alcohol (12.96 g, 120 mmol) in methylene chloride (300 mL) was added triethylamine (25 mL, 180 mmol), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (610 mg, 5 mmol) followed by dropwise addition of succinic anhydride (10 g, 100 mmol).
The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and washed with 1N HCl (2*100 mL) and brine (100 mL).
The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated.
The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (150 mL) and extracted with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 (3*150 mL).
The combined aqueous layers were acidified with concentrated HCl to pH=1-2, and extracted with methylene chloride (4*250 mL).
The combined organic layers were dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to give the title acid (19.5 g, 93.8percent).
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 11.80-10.50 (br, 1H), 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.15 (s, 2H), 2.70 (m, 4H).
89% With N-ethyl-N,N-diisopropylamine In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 20℃; General procedure: To a solution of succinic anhydride (1.0g, 10mmol) in DMF (4mL) was added benzyl alcohol (0.94mL, 9.09mmol) and DIEA (1.93mL, 11mmol) at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and was evaporated in Speed-vac. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (50mL) and washed with saturated NaCl (10mL×2). The organic solution was extracted with aqueous NaHCO3 (5M, 5mL×3) and the aqueous extractions were combined, acidified to pH 4 by adding citric acid (5M), extracted with ethyl acetate (30mL×3). The EtOAc extractions were combined, washed with saturated NaCl, and dried over Na2SO4. Solvent was removed by evaporation in vacuo to give a white solid (1.66g, 89percent); 1H NMR (200MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.38 (s, 5H), 5.18 (s, 2H), 2.73–2.71 (m, 4H); LC–MS (ESI−) 207.0 (100percent).
88% With dmap In tetrahydrofuran for 18 h; Reflux A solution of succinic anhydride (1.0 g, 10 mmol), benzyl alcohol (1.14 g,11 mmol), and DMAP (54 mg, 0.44 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was refluxed for 18 h. The mixture was bacified with sat. NaHCO3, and washed with AcOEt. The aqueous layer was then acidified, and the precipiated solid was extracted with AcOEt. The solid was recrystalized to afford succinic acid monobenzyl ester as colorless needles, 1.85 g, 88percent. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) d. 2.65–2.73 (m, 4H,CH2CH2), 5.15 (s, 2H, PhCH2), and 7.31–7.38 ppm(s, 5H, aromatic).
85% With dmap; triethylamine In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 18 h; Method B: Succinic anhydride (5 g, 50.0 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous DCM (40 mL). Benzyl alcohol (5.69 mL, 55.0 mmol), triethylamine (7.50 mL, 55.0 mmol), and a catalytic amount of DMAP were added to this solution. The resulting clear solution was stirred at room temperature for 18h, after which the, all the volatiles were removed under vacuum. The crude residue was taken up in diethyl ether (200 mL) and was extracted with 2N NaOH (2 χ 75 mL). The aqueous extracts were carefully acidified to pH 2 with concentrated HC1 and then extracted with diethyl ether (2 χ 100 mL). The organic layer was dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as a white solid (8.84 g, 85 percent). M.p. 52-54 °C, lit. 56-57 °C; 1H NMR (300 MHz, acetone-tfc): δ 2.68-2.71 (m, 4H, 2 χ CH2), 5.14 (s, 2H, CHiAr), 7.34-7.36 (m, 5H, ArH).
77% With pyridine; dmap In dichloromethane 3-Hydroxyflavone-3-hemisuccinate (15) was produced according to the reaction outlined in Figure 3. Reaction of succinic anhydride (11) and benzyl alcohol (12) in the presence of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and pyridine in dichloromethane produced the succinic acid monobenzyl esteT (13) as white crystalline flakes in 77percent yield. This protected succinic acid derivative was coupled to 3-hydroxyflavone (1) in the presence of DCC and DMAP, forming flavone-3-hemisuccinate monobenzyi ester(14) as yellow or brown oil that solidified upon standing, with yields of up to 96percent produced.The deprotection of the monobenzyl ester to form the corresponding hemisuccinate using a Pd(OAc)2 in the THF:EtOH;acetic acid solvent system, a larger scale reaction was undertaken to yield the requiτed 3-hydrosyflavone-3-hernisuccinate (15).
71% With dmap In dichloromethane at 0 - 25℃; for 96 h; Example 14; 1-(((4-(benzyloxy)-4-oxobutanoyl)oxy)methyl)-1-methyl-4-(2-methyl-10H-benzo[b]thieno[2,3-e][1,4]diazepin-4-yl)piperazin-1-ium iodide (Compound 14)Synthesis of 4-(benzyloxy)-4-oxobutanoic acidSuccinic anhydride (7 g, 70.0 mmol) and benzyl alcohol (8.7 mL, 83.9 mmol) were combined in dichloromethane (350 mL) at 0° C. and DMAP (0.85 g, 7.0 mmol) was added portion-wise. The reaction was allowed to gradually warm to 25° C. and stirred for 4 days. The reaction mixture was washed with 1M HCl (3.x.200 mL) then water (300 mL). The organic phases were then extracted with aq saturated NaHCO3 (3.x.300 mL). This was then acidified with conc HCl until pH 1 resulting in a solid precipitating which was filtered then dissolved in dichloromethane. The dichloromethane was dried (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo to give 4-(benzyloxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid (10.36 g, 71percent).1H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.41-7.29 (5H, m), 5.15 (2H, s), 2.74-2.63 (4H, m).
70.47% at 100℃; for 2 h; A mixture of 5.0 g (0.05 mol) of succinic acid anhydride, 5.4 g (0.05 mol) of benzyl alcohol, 16.25 g (0.05 mol) of cesium carbonate, and 50 ml of N,N-dimethylforamide was stirred at 100° C. for 2 hours.
The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and then poured into 200 ml of ethyl acetate.
The mixture was washed with saturated aqueous NaCl containing 0.35 N HCl (3*100 mL).
The ethyl acetate phase, which contains the product, was collected and dried over anhydrous MgSO4.
The MgSO4 was removed via filtration, and the ethyl acetate was removed under reduced pressure.
The crude product was purified by crystallization in diethyl ether and hexane to provide 7.34 g of succinic acid monobenzyl ester, 70.47percent.
63.29% With dmap In tetrahydrofuran at 50℃; for 5 h; Succinic anhydride 1 (5.00 g, 49.96 mmol), benzyl alcohol (5.94 g, 54.96 mmol)And 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP, 61 mg, 0.50 mmol) was added to 50 mL of tetrahydrofuran, and the mixture was heated to 50 ° C and stirred under heating for 5 hours.The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, 100 mL of ethyl acetate was added to the residue, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (100 mL) with,Discard the organic layer, adjust the water layer to pH=2 with dilute hydrochloric acid (1 mol/L), and filter.The filter cake was dried to obtain a white solid of 6.58 g, and the yield was 63.29percent.
57%
Stage #1: at 100℃; for 0.5 h; Microwave irradiation
Stage #2: With water In ethyl acetate at 20℃; for 2 h;
Succinic acid anhydride (0.66 g, 6.6 mmol) and benzyl alcohol (0.65 g, 6.0 mmol) were dissolved in CH2Cl2 (5 mL) and the mixture was kept under stirring in a microwave reactor (Biotage Initiator 8) at 100 °C (pressure: ca 7 bar) for 30 min. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was taken up in EtOAc (80 mL) and water (10 mL). The mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h, washed with 5percent KHSO4 (2 * 20 mL) and brine (20 mL), and dried over Na2SO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the colorless oil was subjected to column chromatography (eluent: CH2Cl2/EtOAc 10:1 to CH2Cl2/EtOAc 2:1). The volatiles were removed from the eluate under reduced pressure, CH2Cl2 (20 mL) was added, the solvent was evaporated, and the process repeated. Product 10 was obtained as colourless oil, which crystallized during drying in vacuo to give a white compact solid (0.71 g, 57percent) mp 55-56 °C (lit.;31 mp 56-57 °C). Rf = 0.3 (CH2Cl2/EtOAc 5:1). 1H NMR (300 MHz, [D4]MeOH): δ (ppm) 2.57-2.68 (m, 4H), 5.13 (s, 2H), 7.26-7.38 (m, 5H). C11H12O4 (208.21).
57.7% With dmap In tetrahydrofuran at 50℃; for 5 h; The succinic anhydride (10g, 0.1mol), benzyl alcohol (11.88g, 0.11mol), 4- dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (120mg) was added to a 100ml flask, THF (50ml) as solvent, the outside temperature 50 ° C reaction 5h. The reaction solution was concentrated, ethyl acetate was added, the organic layer was successively washed with water, saturated NaHCO3 solution, saturated brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, and concentrated to a solid with isopropyl ether / acetone and recrystallized to give a white solid 12g, yield 57.7percent,
48% for 4 h; Reflux Benzyl succinic acid was synthesized by following a known procedure.33 Here, succinic anhydride (30 g, 300 mmol) was dissolved in benzyl alcohol (31.6 mL, 33 g, 300 mmol), and the resulting solutionwas heated at reflux for 4 h. The reaction mixture was dissolvedin ether (100 mL), and the insoluble succinic acid wasremoved by filtration. The filtrate was extracted with saturatedaqueous Na2CO3 (3 100 mL), and the combined aqueous extractswere acidified with 2 M HCl (2.0 L). The precipitate was collectedby filtration and dried under vacuum to give 2 (30 g, 48percent). 1HNMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) d 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.15 (s, 2H), 2.70 (m, 4H).13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) d 177.7, 172.1, 135.7, 128.8, 128.5,128.4, 66.9, 29.1, 29.0.
250 g With toluene-4-sulfonic acid In 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene for 5 h; Reflux A solution of Succinic anhydride (184 grams, 1.84 mol), Benzyl alcohol (200 grams, 1.849 mol) and PTSA (1 gram, 5.25 mmol) in Xylene (1200 ml) was stirred at reflux temperature for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, poured onto 10percent Sodium bicarbonate solution (2500 ml), aqueous layer washed with Ethyl acetate (500 ml), pH made acidic with dil HCl, extracted with Chloroform, dried over Sodium sulphate, distilled under reduced pressure, precipitated the residue by using Hexane to give pure Succinic acid mono benzyl ester (250 grams) as white powder with a melting point of 61-63° C. The product was characterized by IH NMR (CDCl3) δ 2.70 (m, 4H, CH2X2), 5.20 (s, 2H, CH2), 7.35 (m, 5H, Ar), 10.25 (bs, 1H, COOH).
18.5 g With pyridine In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 120 h; 10.0 g (100 mmol) of succinic anhydride, 10 ml of THF (tetrahydrofuran), 10.8 g (100 mmol) of benzyl alcohol and 4 ml of pyridine were combined and stirred for 5 days at ambient temperature. The solution was diluted with toluene. The mixture was extracted with a saturated solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The water phase was separated, and acidified with hydrochloric acid. The product was extracted with toluene to yield 18.5 g of succinic acid monobenzyl ester.

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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
95.31% at 60℃; for 2 h; The reaction takes place via typical condition, that is 6.8 mmol L-glutamic acid, 10.2 mmol benzyl alcohol (L-glutamic acid/benzyl alcohol molar ratio = 1:1.5) and 0.68 mmol CuCl2 are loaded into a 50 ml single-port reaction flask, and the mixture is stirred at 60 °C for 2 h. After the reaction, the reaction mixture was cooled to be analyzed.
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  • [ 108-95-2 ]
  • [ 101-53-1 ]
  • [ 28994-41-4 ]
  • [ 22272-48-6 ]
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  • 92
  • [ 147-85-3 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 16652-71-4 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
93%
Stage #1: at 0℃; Inert atmosphere
Stage #2: at 0 - 20℃; for 50 h; Inert atmosphere
Benzyl alcohol (70 mL, 651 mmol) was cooled to 0 °C under nitrogen and 7.0 mL thionyl chloride (91.2 mmol) was added. l-Proline (5.0 g, 43.4 mmol) was then added and the mixture was stirred at 0 °C under nitrogen for 2 h.
The mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirring continued for 48 h.
The reaction mixture was then poured into 300 mL diethyl ether and stored at -20 °C for 7 days.
The precipitate formed was collected by filtration, washed with diethyl ether, and dried under vacuum to give 8 as white solid (9.88 g, 93percent yield); mp 142.1-144.0 °C; lit: 143-144 °C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.41-7.21 (m, 5H), 5.16 (s, 2H), 3.80 (dd, J = 3.83, 5.9 Hz, 1H), 3.15-3.01 (m, 1H), 3.00-2.82 (m, 1H), 2.42-2.21 (m, 1H), 2.13 (dd, J = 12.9 Hz, 7.5 Hz, 1H), 1.92-1.62 (m, 3H).
13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): δ 175.5, 136.0, 128.8, 128.5, 128.3, 66.9, 59.9, 47.2, 30.4, 25.6. Anal. Calcd for C12H16ClNO2: C, 59.63; H, 6.67; N, 5.79. Found: C, 59.50; H, 6.86; N, 5.64.
25
75.3%
Stage #1: With hydrogenchloride; iron(III) chloride In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 0.5 h;
Stage #2: for 3 h; Reflux
Will 11 · 5g (0 · lmol) valine,30ml of dichloroethane and 16.2g (0.1mol) of FeCl3 were put into a 250ml three-necked flask,Hydrogen chloride gas is fed at a rate of 1.25 ml/s (hydrogen chloride gas is always fed at this rate for a reaction time of 0.5 h).Reaction at room temperature for 0.5 h. Pass into HC1 total 2250ml, molar amount 0. lmolThen, 11.66 g (0.108 mol) of benzyl alcohol (proline: benzyl alcohol = 1:1.08) was put into a three-necked flask, and hydrogen chloride was introduced at 0.05 ml/s (hydrogen chloride gas was always fed at this rate for a reaction time of 3 h). , Under reflux conditions, distill off the aqueous dichloroethane (ie, the mixture distilled out during azeotropic distillation), and add anhydrous dichloroethane to the reaction system at the same rate to maintain The amount of dichloroethane in the reaction was essentially constant, and the reaction was completed in 3 hours. A total of 120 mL of azeotrope (ie, mixed liquor, ie, aqueous dichloroethane) was distilled out, and HC1 540 mL (0.024 mol) was introduced in total.The reaction solution was filtered while hot to obtain a filter residue containing a catalyst (Note: The "heat filtration reaction liquid" is for the purpose of removing the metal chloride as a catalyst, which can be used in the subsequent step 2).0032] After the filtered reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, the remaining dichloroethane solvent was removed by vacuum distillation (lOmmHg pressure, 40°C temperature), recrystallized at -10°C, and the precipitated solid was cooled with 20 ml of The solution was washed with iced dichloroethane at 0° C., filtered (retain filtrate), and the filter cake was dried at 40° C. for 5 h to obtain 18.20 g of proline benzyl ester hydrochloride. The yield was 75.3percent.[0033] 120ml of the mixed liquor having been distilled out during the water-retention process is obtained, and after dehydration treatment (water is removed with anhydrous sodium sulfate and 5g of anhydrous sodium sulfate is added per 100ml of dichloromethane), anhydrous dichloroethane (118mL) is obtained. Recycle in step 2.The retained filtrate was rotary evaporated (pressure of 10 mmHg, temperature of 40° C.) to 20 ml as a mother liquor for the next cycle (BP, as a raw material, fed into Step 2)..3percent.See also3/4
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  • 96
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
88.4% at 10℃; for 2 h; Autoclave; Reflux; Large scale To 2000L is put in the reactor 270 kg P-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate, toluene 550 kg, turning on the agitation, heating to reflux, with the water to drop the generated water, until there is no water generating, glycine is added in to the reaction solution 100 kg, benzalcohol 850 kg, to continue heating to reflux, water constantly by the generated water is separated, water until no, continue to reflux 2 hours, cooling to 10 °C, stirring 1 hour, filtering, with 100 kg of acetone washing the filter cake, drying to be 395 kg glycine benzyl ester P-toluenesulfonate, yield 88.4percent, purity 99.62percent.
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YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
75.3% With triethylamine In tetrahydrofuran at 0℃; for 1 h; Inert atmosphere; Cooling with ice Take compound 3-9, 42g (207.92mmo1) was placed in a 500mL round bottomed flask, was added 300mL of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran, 66mL (455.44mmol, 46g) of anhydrous triethylamine were dissolved with stirring. When the flask was placed in an ice-salt bath until the system temperature was lowered to 0 the right, under nitrogen was added dropwise over anhydrous benzyl alcohol 45mL (416.67mmol, 45g), was added dropwise maintaining temperature of the system is always near 0 , IH complete after the suspension was added dropwise to give a white solid containing the ice bath was removed to room temperature, stirring was continued at room temperature for 3h stirring was stopped to stand 10min, filtered off with suction, washed solid was tetrahydrofuran, the filtrate was collected, rotary evaporated to give tetrahydrofuran was no liquid column liquid chromatography to give an oil 54.0g, a yield of 75.3percent.
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  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 108549-23-1 ]
  • [ 108549-21-9 ]
Reference: [1] Amino Acids, 2010, vol. 39, # 2, p. 367 - 373
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Reference: [1] Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2013, vol. 11, # 34, p. 5702 - 5713
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  • [ 108549-23-1 ]
Reference: [1] Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1987, vol. 70, p. 175 - 186
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  • 104
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  • [ 145471-95-0 ]
Reference: [1] Carbohydrate Research, 1992, vol. 230, # 1, p. 63 - 78
  • 105
  • [ 72-18-4 ]
  • [ 104-15-4 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 16652-76-9 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
88% for 4 h; Dean-Stark; Reflux General procedure: The esterifications were carried out on L amino acids withthe exception of phenylglycine, the D enantiomer of whichwas used. A mixture of amino acid (0.05 mol), p-toluenesulfonicacid (0.06 mol), benzyl alcohol (0.25 mol) andcyclohexane (30 mL) was refluxed for 4 h using a Dean-Stark apparatus to separate water that was azeotroped outas it formed. The reaction mixture was cooled to roomtemperature and ethyl acetate (80 mL) was added. Afterstirring for 1 h, the precipitate was collected by filtrationand dried to give the corresponding benzyl ester p-toluenesulfonateas a white solid. According to this procedure,the amino acids 1–6 were converted into the correspondingbenzyl ester p-toluenesulfonates 1a–6a. The benzylationof 7 was accomplished in the same manner but in thepresence of more p-toluenesulfonic acid (0.11 mol) to givethe di-p-toluenesulfonate 7a as a white solid. The p-toluenesulfonate8a separated at the end of the reaction as anoil; instead of adding ethyl acetate, the supernatant wasremoved, the oily phase was washed with cyclohexane andthen poured into dichloromethane/aqueous Na2CO3. Afterremoving the water layer and evaporating dichloromethane,the residue was treated with hydrochloric methanol to give the corresponding hydrochloride as a white solid. Thebenzylation of 9 was prolonged over night and, at the endof the reaction, 9a separated as an oil, which was pouredinto dichloromethane/water. After removing the organiclayer, the water phase was made alkaline with NaHCO3 andextracted with ethyl acetate. The organic extract was concentratedto a small volume and a slight excess of p-toluenesulfonicacid was added to precipitate 9a as a white crystallinesolid.
Reference: [1] Tetrahedron Letters, 2008, vol. 49, # 49, p. 6962 - 6964
[2] Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 2001, vol. 78, # 3, p. 137 - 141
[3] Amino Acids, 2017, vol. 49, # 5, p. 965 - 974
[4] Chirality, 2012, vol. 24, # 2, p. 188 - 192
[5] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2018, vol. 157, p. 962 - 977
  • 106
  • [ 56-87-1 ]
  • [ 104-15-4 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 16259-78-2 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
85% for 4 h; Dean-Stark; Reflux General procedure: The esterifications were carried out on L amino acids withthe exception of phenylglycine, the D enantiomer of whichwas used. A mixture of amino acid (0.05 mol), p-toluenesulfonicacid (0.06 mol), benzyl alcohol (0.25 mol) andcyclohexane (30 mL) was refluxed for 4 h using a Dean-Stark apparatus to separate water that was azeotroped outas it formed. The reaction mixture was cooled to roomtemperature and ethyl acetate (80 mL) was added. Afterstirring for 1 h, the precipitate was collected by filtrationand dried to give the corresponding benzyl ester p-toluenesulfonateas a white solid. According to this procedure,the amino acids 1–6 were converted into the correspondingbenzyl ester p-toluenesulfonates 1a–6a. The benzylationof 7 was accomplished in the same manner but in thepresence of more p-toluenesulfonic acid (0.11 mol) to givethe di-p-toluenesulfonate 7a as a white solid. The p-toluenesulfonate8a separated at the end of the reaction as anoil; instead of adding ethyl acetate, the supernatant wasremoved, the oily phase was washed with cyclohexane andthen poured into dichloromethane/aqueous Na2CO3. Afterremoving the water layer and evaporating dichloromethane,the residue was treated with hydrochloric methanol to give the corresponding hydrochloride as a white solid. Thebenzylation of 9 was prolonged over night and, at the endof the reaction, 9a separated as an oil, which was pouredinto dichloromethane/water. After removing the organiclayer, the water phase was made alkaline with NaHCO3 andextracted with ethyl acetate. The organic extract was concentratedto a small volume and a slight excess of p-toluenesulfonicacid was added to precipitate 9a as a white crystallinesolid.
Reference: [1] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2000, vol. 122, # 33, p. 7927 - 7935
[2] Amino Acids, 2017, vol. 49, # 5, p. 965 - 974
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Reference: [1] Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fuer Physiologische Chemie, 1928, vol. 176, p. 106
[2] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, vol. 18, # 17, p. 6220 - 6229
[3] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2012, vol. 55, # 1, p. 55 - 67
[4] Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 2013, vol. 50, # 5, p. 1025 - 1030
[5] Patent: WO2014/22807, 2014, A2, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0246; 0247; 0248; 0249
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[2] Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 1985, vol. 62, # 6, p. 457 - 459
[3] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, vol. 18, # 17, p. 6220 - 6229
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2015, vol. 80, # 9, p. 4235 - 4243
  • 110
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Reference: [1] Patent: US6362376, 2002, B1, . Location in patent: Example 1
  • 111
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  • [ 33106-32-0 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1988, vol. 53, # 15, p. 3457 - 3465
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1988, vol. 53, # 15, p. 3457 - 3465
  • 113
  • [ 6863-73-6 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 110223-15-9 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
82%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one for 0.5 h;
Stage #2: at 80℃; for 24 h;
Benzyl alcohol (4.55 g, 42.15 mmol) was added under an inert atmosphere dropwise to a suspension of sodium hydride (1. 01 g, 42.13 mmol, 80percent) in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Stirring of the reaction mixture was continued for 30 min. 2-Amino-3-chloropyrazine (Compound I in Scheme 1, 5.0 g, 38.6 mmol) was then added in incrememtal portions and the resultant mixture was heated at 80 °C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was subsequently cooled and water (200 mL) was added. The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (2 x 100 mL), dried (Mg04), and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a light brown residue. Addition of cold water to the residue, triggered crystallization of the desired product. The crystals were collected and dried over P2O5 (6.33 g, 82percent). 1H-NMR (CDCl3) No. 7. 54 (d, J 3.1 Hz, 1H), 7.45-7. 32 (m, 6H), 5. 38 (s, 2H), 4. 78 (br s, 2H); MS (ESI) 202.2 ([M+H] +)
82%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In 1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-one for 0.5 h;
Stage #2: at 80℃; for 24 h;
Benzyl alcohol (4.55 g, 42.15 mmol) was added under an inert atmosphere dropwise to a suspension of sodium hydride (1. 01 g, 42.13 mmol, 80percent) in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Stirring of the reaction mixture was continued for 30 min. 2-Amino-3-chloropyrazine (Compound I in Scheme 1, 5.0 g, 38.6 mmol) was then added in incrememtal portions and the resultant mixture was heated at 80 °C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was subsequently cooled and water (200 mL) was added. The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (2 x 100 mL), dried (Mg04), and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a light brown residue. Addition of cold water to the residue, triggered crystallization of the desired product. The crystals were collected and dried over P2O5 (6.33 g, 82percent). 1H-NMR (CDCl3) No. 7. 54 (d, J 3.1 Hz, 1H), 7.45-7. 32 (m, 6H), 5. 38 (s, 2H), 4. 78 (br s, 2H); MS (ESI) 202.2 ([M+H] +)
53.76%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 20℃; for 1 h;
Stage #2: at 100℃; for 15 h;
Sodium hydride (188.6 mg, 4.72 mmol) in N, N- dimethylformamide (3 mL) was slowly added dropwise at room temperature and benzyl alcohol was dissolved in it and it was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. It was added dropwise slowly to a mixture of 2-amino-3-chloro-pyrazine and heating at 100 °C refluxed for 15 hours. After cooling the reaction to room temperature and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure . By separation and purification of the residue by column chromatography (ethyl acetate / n-hexane = 1/4) to obtain the objective compound 300 mg at a yield of 53.76percent.
53.8%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In N,N-dimethyl-formamide; mineral oil at 20℃; for 1 h; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique
Stage #2: at 100℃; for 15 h; Inert atmosphere; Schlenk technique
General procedure: Sodium hydride (60percent in mineral oil, 0.04 g, 1 mmol) was addedto a stirred solution of benzyl alcohol derivative (1 mmol) inanhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (3 mL of DMF) at room temperatureand stirring was continued for 1 h. 2-Amino-3-chloropyrazine (8b, 0.13 g, 1 mmol) was added to the reactionmixture and the reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 15 h.After cooling, the solvent was evaporated and the residue waspartitioned betweenwater and dichloromethane. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate anhydrous, filtered, and concentrated.The residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2,EA/n-Hex 1/5). 4.1.2.1 3-(Benzyloxy)pyrazin-2-amine (9g) Yellow solid, yield: 53.8percent, 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 5.45 (2H, s, OCH2Ph), 6.20 (2H, br, NH2), 7.38-7.48 (7H, m, ArH). Reported [ 48,49].

Reference: [1] Patent: WO2005/34837, 2005, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 43-44
[2] Patent: WO2005/34837, 2005, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 43-44
[3] Patent: KR101481952, 2015, B1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0797; 0798
[4] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2018, vol. 144, p. 529 - 543
[5] Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 1990, vol. 27, # 6, p. 1639 - 1643
[6] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 1987, vol. 30, # 11, p. 2031 - 2046
[7] MedChemComm, 2014, vol. 5, # 3, p. 333 - 337
[8] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2018, vol. 157, p. 268 - 278
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Reference: [1] Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 1990, vol. 27, # 6, p. 1639 - 1643
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Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2012, vol. 14, # 5, p. 1206 - 1209
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Reference: [1] Patent: US2014/248242, 2014, A1,
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Reference: [1] Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), 2001, # 19, p. 1908 - 1909
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Reference: [1] Journal of Natural Products, 2017, vol. 80, # 7, p. 2136 - 2140
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Reference: [1] Tetrahedron Letters, 1989, vol. 30, # 21, p. 2751 - 2754
[2] Organic Letters, 2016, vol. 18, # 3, p. 468 - 471
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Reference: [1] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2010, vol. 20, # 12, p. 3809 - 3813
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2015, vol. 80, # 3, p. 1365 - 1374
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Reference: [1] Tetrahedron Asymmetry, 1993, vol. 4, # 5, p. 961 - 968
  • 123
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2017, vol. 82, # 13, p. 6604 - 6614
  • 124
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  • [ 24228-40-8 ]
Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2017, vol. 19, # 3, p. 544 - 547
  • 125
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  • [ 105891-54-1 ]
Reference: [1] Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2018, vol. 16, # 44, p. 8537 - 8545
  • 126
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Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1994, vol. 59, # 23, p. 7096 - 7098
  • 127
  • [ 619-58-9 ]
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Reference: [1] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 1998, vol. 8, # 18, p. 2443 - 2446
  • 128
  • [ 15164-44-0 ]
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Reference: [1] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2012, vol. 134, # 30, p. 12374 - 12377
  • 129
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  • [ 158171-14-3 ]
Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2012, vol. 14, # 5, p. 1206 - 1209
[2] Patent: WO2013/12416, 2013, A1,
[3] Patent: WO2013/12846, 2013, A1,
  • 130
  • [ 927-58-2 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 126430-46-4 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
83% With potassium carbonate In dichloromethane for 2 h; To a solution of 4-bromobutyryl chloride (Aldrich Chemical Company, Wisconsin), (10.27 g, 55.4 mmol) in 100 mL of dichloromethane was added benzyl alcohol (Aldrich Chemical Company, Wisconsin), (6.29 g, 58.1 mmol), followed by potassium carbonate (8.3 g, 60 mmol) in four portions. After 2 hours, water was added, and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water, brine, and dried over magnesium sulfate. Evaporation of the solvent gave the title compound (11.87 g, 83percent yield) as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.36 (m, 5H), 5.14 (s, 2H), 3.46 (t, J=6.4 Hz, 2H), 2.56 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 2H), 2.20 (quin, J=6.6 Hz, 2H).
82% With dmap In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 2 h; [00140] Benzyl alcohol (3.1 ml_, 30 mmol) was added to a solution of Compound 1 (3.47 ml_, 30 mmol) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (732 mg, 6 mmol) in dichloromethane (100 ml_). The reaction was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature then quenched with 1 M HCI (100 ml_). The organic phase was washed once more with 1 M HCI (100 ml_), dried over MgS04, filtered, dried by rotary evaporation and was dried under vacuum to yield Compound 2 as a colorless oil (6.29 g, 24.5 mmol, 82percent).
Reference: [1] Patent: US2006/189603, 2006, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 57
[2] Patent: WO2016/86026, 2016, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 00140
[3] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 1996, vol. 39, # 26, p. 5176 - 5182
[4] Synthesis, 2010, # 6, p. 953 - 958
[5] Patent: EP1724278, 2006, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 44-45
  • 131
  • [ 2623-87-2 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 126430-46-4 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
70%
Stage #1: With S-phenyl benzenethiosulfinate; diisopropyl-carbodiimide In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 2 h;
General procedure: General Procedure for Benzyl Protection of the Bromo-Acid (1c, 1d) [0103] Diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC) (3.59 mmol, 1.3 eq) was added to a mixture of the bromo-acid (4-bromobutyric acid or 5-bromovaleric acid) (2.76 mmol, 1 eq) and DPTS (3.04 mmol, 1.1 eq) in dry DCM (30 mL) and was allowed to react for 2 hours at room temperature. Benzyl alcohol (4.14 mmol, 1.5 eq) was added and allowed to react overnight. The reaction was washed water and brine, and the DCM was removed by evaporation. Hexanes was added and the resulting white precipitate was removed by filtration. The hexanes was removed from the filtrate by evaporation resulting in an oil which was purified by silica gel chromatography (Hexanes/Ethyl Acetate 3.5/1). Benzyl 4-bromobutyrate (1c) [0104] 70percent yield [0105] 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) 2.22 (p 2H), 2.58 (t, 2H), 3.48 (t, 2H), 5.16 (s, 2H), 7.40 (m, 5H) [0106] 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): 28.0, 32.7, 33.0, 66.7, 128.5, 128.6, 128.9, 136.1, 172.6
Reference: [1] European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2008, # 15, p. 2592 - 2600
[2] Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, 2007, vol. 349, # 3, p. 432 - 440
[3] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2001, vol. 66, # 12, p. 4115 - 4121
[4] Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2011, vol. 133, # 41, p. 16346 - 16349
[5] Patent: US2013/302258, 2013, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0102; 0103; 0104; 0105; 0106
[6] Chemistry - A European Journal, 2016, vol. 22, # 4, p. 1270 - 1276
[7] Patent: EP1544208, 2005, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 58
  • 132
  • [ 73731-37-0 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 175291-56-2 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
67%
Stage #1: With phosphorus trichloride In tetrahydrofuran at -5 - 5℃; for 0.0833333 h; Inert atmosphere
Stage #2: With 2,6-dimethylpyridine In tetrahydrofuran at -5 - 5℃; Inert atmosphere
General Procedure for Amino Acid PhosphorylationIn the following description, a "volume" equivalent is one mL of liquid per gram of the limiting reagent (e.g., the dry amino acid).Amino acid dryingHydrated forms of amino-group-protected amino acids (hydrated specified as >0.5 wtpercent water) are dried prior to use. The amino-group-protected amino acid (1.0 equivalents of dry compound) is charged to a flask. Dry THF (4 volumes, EMD OmniSolv HPLC grade, >99.99percent) is added and the total volume is marked on the outside of the flask. The mixture is heated in a 70°C bath and THF (about 2 volumes) is removed via distillation at 700 mbar. The solution is then diluted to the original, marked volume with dry THF. This distillation and dilution cycle is repeated two additional times. The final water content of the amino acid solution should be <0.20 wtpercent by Karl-Fischer (KF) titration.Step One: Dichlorophosphite preparationTo a flask flushed with nitrogen, THF (8 volumes) is charged. The solvent is cooled to 0°C and PC13 (1.30 equivalents, Aldrich, Reagent Plus grade, 99percent) is charged to the flask at a rate that maintains the solution at 0-5 °C. When the addition is complete and the solution is below 2.5 °C, a suitable base such as pyridine (Aldrich, anhydrous, 99+percent) (1 equivalent) may optionally be added at a rate that keeps the reaction temperature at - 5°C to 5°C. This optional step is especially useful when the dichlorophosphite is prepared from tert-butanol. With the reaction temperature below 2.5°C, a suitable alcohol such as tert-butanol or benzyl alcohol (BnOH; Aldrich, ACS grade, 99+percent) (1.50 equivalents) is added at a rate that keeps the reaction at -5 to 5°C. The solution is then allowed to stir for 5 minutes at 0-5°C and the consumption of PC13 is confirmed by 31P NMR (in CDCI3). A suitable base such as 2,6-lutidine (Aldrich, >99percent) (3.00 equivalents; 2.00 equivalents if a base was added previously) is then added to the flask at a rate that keeps the reaction at -5 to 5 °C. This forms a thick slurry.Step Two: Phosphite ester intermediate preparationA suitable base such as 2,6-lutidine (1.0 equivalents) is added to the dried amino- group-protected amino acid (APG-A.A.) solution. This solution is then added to the mixture from step one at a rate that keeps the reaction at -5 to 5°C. Additional THF (1 volume) is used to rinse the flask containing the APG-A.A. solution into the reaction. HPLC assays (Method 1) are taken at 10 min intervals starting 5 minutes after the addition to confirm reaction completion (no change in the ratio of APG-A.A. to intermediate phosphite ester at 225/210 nm).Step Three: Hydrolysis to phosphite esterAfter three consistent HPLC traces are observed, H20 (3.6 volumes) is added to the flask at a rate that does not allow the reaction to go above 10°C. During the addition, a two-phase solution is formed.Step Four: Oxidation to phosphateA suitable oxidant is then added to the two-phase mixture. When the oxidant isNaBr03/NaBr, solid NaBr (2.32 equivalents, Aldrich, ACS grade, 99+percent) is added to the two-phase mixture in the reactor at 0°C; an aqueous solution (20 wtpercent in water) of NaBr03 (0.48 equivalents, Riedel-de-Haen, puriss grade, 98percent> NaBr03 in DI water) is then added at a rate that keeps the reaction at 0-5°C. After the oxidant addition is complete the cooling is removed to allow the reaction to warm to ambient temperature, being careful not to allow the reaction to exotherm above 30°C. HPLC assays (Method 1) are taken to confirm reaction completion (phosphite ester intermediate <1.5 Apercent at 225/210 nm). When reaction completion is observed an aqueous solution (10 wtpercent> in water) of Na2S205 (1 volume, Sigma- Aldrich, ACS grade, 97+percent> Na2S205 in DI water) is added to the flask in one portion.Example 2. Fmoc (BnO) Phosphothreonine.67percent yield. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 7.89 (d, 2H), 7.78 (d, 2H), 7.71 (d, 1H), 7.38 (m, 9H), 4.92 (d, 2H), 4.81 (m, 1H), 4.26 (m, 4H), 1.30 (d, 3H); 13C NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 170.95 (s, 1C), 156.51 (s, 1C), 143.74 (d, 2C), 140.65 (d, 2C), 136.96 (d, 1C), 128.29 (s, 2C), 127.89 (s, 1C), 127.61 (s, 2C), 127.50 (s, 2C), 127.03 (s, 2C), 125.40 (d, 2C), 120.04 (s, 2C), 73.10 (d, 1C), 67.35 (d, 1C), 66.05 (s, 1C), 58.59 (d, 1C), 46.59 (s, 1C), 18.17 (d, 1C); 31P NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ -2.27; HRMS: [MH+] = 512.14700 (Calc =512.14688); Specific Rotation: +5.99°
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2013/12416, 2013, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 70-71; 75
  • 133
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  • [ 175291-56-2 ]
Reference: [1] Organic Letters, 2012, vol. 14, # 5, p. 1206 - 1209
  • 134
  • [ 625-92-3 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 130722-95-1 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
73%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In hexane; N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 20℃; for 2.08333 h; Inert atmosphere; Cooling with ice
Stage #2: at 20℃; for 15 h; Inert atmosphere
3-(Benzyloxy)-5-bromopyridine [1099] (Zhu. G.-D. et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006, 16, 3150-3155) [1100] A 500 mL three-necked flask was charged with sodium hydride (60percent dispersion in oil; 9.6 g, 240 mmol, 2.0 equiv.) and fitted out with stir bar, dropping funnel, N2 balloon, and septa. The sodium hydride was washed with hexane (2×150 mL), then anhydrous DMF (110 mL) was added. With stifling and intermittent ice cooling, benzyl alcohol (25 mL, 240 mmol, 2.0 equiv.) was added dropwise within 105 min. The temperature was kept high enough to permit efficient stifling and prevent excessive frothing. After the addition was finished, the dropping funnel was rinsed with anhydrous DMF. Stirring was continued at room temperature for 20 min. The flask was briefly opened to add 3,5-dibromopyridine (28.4 g, 120 mmol) all at once. The atmosphere was again replaced with N2, and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 h. A thin layer chromatogram (small aliquot quenched into EtOAc/H2O; silica gel, EtOAc/hexane 15:85) taken shortly before the end of this period demonstrated the near-absence of starting material (Rf 0.6) and the formation of a product (Rf 0.25); benzyl alcohol was detected at Rf 0.15. The bulk of DMF was distilled in an oil pump vacuum at a bath temperature of 40° C. into a receiver cooled with acetone/dry ice. Initial foaming was due to the evaporation of residual hexane. The receiver was subsequently changed to maintain a high vacuum. The residue was taken up in diethyl ether (300 mL) and the resulting suspension poured into ice water (300 mL). The phases were separated, and the aqueous phase was twice extracted with ether (100 mL each). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (100 mL) and dried over MgSO4 (15 g). Evaporation furnished an orange-colored liquid together with a colorless solid. After transfer into a 200 mL flask, benzyl alcohol was distilled off in an oil pump vacuum into a −78° C. receiver. The product began to crystallize after partial cooling, whereon methanol (60 mL) was added. Crystallization was initially allowed to proceed at room temperature, then in the freezer overnight. [1101] The product was isolated by suction filtration, washed with two portions of freezer-chilled methanol (20 mL each), and dried (40° C./oil pump) to obtain 23.2 g (73percent) of light-tan crystals (mp 67-68.5° C.). The mother liquor was concentrated to a few mL, diluted with methanol (15 mL), seeded, and placed in the freezer. Isolation as above gave 1.7 g of a solid which upon TLC examination revealed contamination with polar material. The second mother liquor still contained substantial amounts of benzyl alcohol, which was removed by evaporation into a 50 mL flask and bulb-to-bulb distillation at 80° C. in an oil pump vacuum until by visual appearance no further distillate was formed. The dark residue (2.7 g) together with the impure second crystal fraction was taken up in CH2Cl2 (3 mL) and chromatographed on silica gel (25×3.8 cm, EtOAc/hexane 1:9) to yield, after evaporation and drying, another 2.4 g (8percent) of the product 2. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 8.33 (narrow m, 2H), 7.50-7.32 (m, 6H), 5.11 (s, 2H).
63%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In N,N-dimethyl-formamide; mineral oilInert atmosphere
Stage #2: at 180℃; for 2 h; Inert atmosphere
Benzylalcohol (10 mL, 96 mmol) was dissolved in dry DMF (30 mL) and sodium hydride (60percent suspension in mineral oil) (2.5 g, 62.50 mmol) was slowly added. When no more gas evolved, 3,5-dibromopyridine (10 g, 42.21 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 180 °C for 2 h. After addition of water, the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and evaporated to dryness. The resulting oil was purified by column chromatography eluting with an 8/2 mixture of petroleum ether and diethyl ether and then a second column chromatography eluting with a 9/1 mixture of CH2Cl2 and ethyl acetate to afford 2 (7.02 g, 63percent) as a beige needle. Mp 67-68 °C (lit.:14 64-65 °C); IR (KBr): 1553, 1425, 1259, 990 cm-1; 1H NMR (400 MHz): 5.25 (s, 2H, -OCH2Ph), 7.37-7.51 (m, 5H, Ph-H), 7.84 (dd, J=J'=2.0 Hz, 1H, pyridine-H), 8.33 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H, pyridine-H), 8.40 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H, pyridine-H); 13C NMR (100 MHz): 70.2, 120.2, 124.3, 128.2, 128.4, 128.7, 136.2, 137.4, 142.5, 155.3; the data are in conformity with the literature.14 MS (ESI) m/z (percent): 265.9 [(M+H)+, 100], 267.9 [(M+H)+2, 100]. Anal. Calcd for C12H10BrNO: C, 54.57; H, 3.82; N, 5.30. Found: C, 54.63; H, 3.83; N, 5.31.
43%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In N,N-dimethyl-formamide at 60℃; for 1 h;
Stage #2: at 80℃; for 2 h;
Benzyl alcohol (4.60 g, 42.6 mmol) was slowly added to a stirred solution of NaH (60percent disp., 1.70 g, 42.5 mmol) in DMF (50 mL). The reaction was heated to 60 0C for 1 hours. 3,5-Dibromopyridine (10.0 g, 42.2 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was added and the mixture was heated at 80 0C for 2 hours. The reaction <n="172"/>mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was separated and concentrated to give a residue which was purified using flash chromatography to give 3- Benzyloxy-5-bromopyridine (4.75 g, 43percent). MS m/z calculated for (M + H)+ 265, found 265.
26%
Stage #1: With sodium hydride In N,N-dimethyl-formamide for 1.5 h; Reflux
Stage #2: at 20℃; for 12 h; Reflux
To a solution of benzyl alcohol (1.04g, 9.66mmol) in anhydrous DMF (80mL) was slowly added 60percent NaH (0.58g, 14.49mmol). The mixture was allowed to react at room temperature for 30min then it was heated to reflux for 1h. 3,5-dibromopyridine (2.41g, 10.17mmol) was added and the reaction was continued for 12h. After cooling down to room temperature, the mixture was poured in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried on MgSO4, filtered and evaporated. The crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography (cyclohexane/AcOEt 95:5) affording 10 as a white solid. Yield 26percent. Mp 66–68°C. 1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3): δ 5.06 (2H, s, OCH2), 7.36–7.44 (6H, m, H-4, H-Ph), 8.30 (1H, d, J=2.3Hz, H-6), 8.31 (1H, d, J=2.3Hz, H-2). 13C NMR (100MHz, CDCl3): δ 155.5, 143.5, 137.0, 135.7, 129.1, 128.8, 127.9, 124.7, 120.7, 71.0.

Reference: [1] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2006, vol. 16, # 12, p. 3150 - 3155
[2] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2012, vol. 55, # 2, p. 717 - 724
[3] Patent: US2013/184313, 2013, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 1099; 1100
[4] Tetrahedron, 2011, vol. 67, # 26, p. 4767 - 4773
[5] Tetrahedron, 2001, vol. 57, # 20, p. 4447 - 4454
[6] Patent: WO2007/84560, 2007, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 170-171
[7] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2015, vol. 95, p. 185 - 198
[8] Patent: WO2010/45212, 2010, A2, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 134; 173-174
[9] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2016, vol. 124, p. 689 - 697
  • 135
  • [ 74115-13-2 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 130722-95-1 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
97 mg With di-isopropyl azodicarboxylate; triphenylphosphine In tetrahydrofuran at 0 - 20℃; for 18 h; Synthesis of 3-Benzyloxy-5-bromo-pyridine
To a vial is added 3-bromo-5-hydroxypyridine (200 mg, 1.15 mmol), benzyl alcohol (137 mg, 1.27 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (332 mg, 1.27 mmol) in THF (5 ml) at 0° C., followed by the addition of diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (256 mg, 1.27 mmol).
The reaction mixture is stirred at room temperature for 18 hours.
The reaction mixture is concentrated in vacuo.
The residue is diluted with EtOAc, washed with sat NaHCO3, water, brine, dried under anhy. Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated.
The residue is purified by flash chromatography (SiO2, 0-5percent MeOH/CH2Cl2) to afford title compound (97 mg); m/z 264.0, 266.0 [M, M+2H]
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2012/24150, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 137
[2] Patent: US2013/195879, 2013, A1, . Location in patent: Paragraph 0286; 0287
  • 136
  • [ 212332-40-6 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 130722-95-1 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2012, vol. 55, # 22, p. 9929 - 9945
  • 137
  • [ 623-05-2 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 151358-47-3 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
90% With lithium perchlorate In acetonitrile at 20℃; Electrochemical reaction General procedure: A 40 cm3 acetonitrile solution of alcohols 1a–1i(1 mmol) in LiClO4 (0.05 g) was electrolyzed at the2.0 V versus SCE. After completion of the electro-oxidationof alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes,indoles 2a, 2b (2 mmol) were added and electrolyzed at-0.9 V versus SCE. In the two mentioned stages, electrosynthesisreactions were done in an undivided cellequipped with graphite rods as the cathode and Pt-anodeat room temperature. The electrolysis was terminatedwhen the current decreased by more than 95 percent. Amagnetic stirrer was employed during the electrolysis.The process was interrupted several times during theelectrolysis and the graphite rod was washed in acetonein order to reactivate it. After completion of the electrocondensation,the solvent was evaporated and theresulting crude product was purified by preparative thinlayerchromatography on silica gel (eluent: n-hexane–EtOAc, 4:1) to afford 3,30-di(indolyl)methanes 3a–3k.All the products were characterized by comparison oftheir melting points and also spectroscopic data (IR, 1HNMR and mass spectra) with those of the authenticsamples in literature
Reference: [1] Monatshefte fur Chemie, 2015, vol. 146, # 12, p. 2021 - 2027
  • 138
  • [ 143322-56-9 ]
  • [ 143322-55-8 ]
  • [ 180637-93-8 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 143322-57-0 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
57%
Stage #1: With sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminium dihydride In toluene at 30 - 48℃; for 2.66667 h;
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide; water In toluene at 15 - 20℃; for 1 h;
SDMA in toluene (70percent solution, 172 ml, 0.6 mol), diluted with dry toluene (30 ml), was added to a stirred suspension of (R)-2-(5-Bromo-1H-indole-3-carbonyl)-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic acid benzyl ester (60 g, 0.14 mol) in dry toluene (350 ml) at 30-40° C. during 10 min. The reaction temperature was raised to 48° C. and the resulting yellow solution was stirred for 2.5 h. The reaction was cooled to 15° C. and 5percent aqueous NaOH (300 ml) was added dropwise while the temperature was maintained between 15-20° C. The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously for additional 60 min at 20° C. The organic layer was separated and analyzed by HPLC. Crude BIP purity: 66.49 Norm percent. Levels of impurities found (Norm percent): Benzyl-alcohol: 24.11percent; Des-Bromo-BIP: 1.91percent; OH-BIP: 1.38percent; Keto-BIP: 1.90percent.The organic layer was extracted with 2M acetic acid (1.x.250 ml) and (1.x.50 ml). The aqueous layer was combined with toluene (250 ml) in a separatory funnel and 10percent NaOH was added in portions to pH 12 (250 ml) and the product was extracted to the organic phase. The organic phase was separated, the aqueous phase was re-extracted with a fresh portion of toluene (50 ml) and combined toluene extracts were evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in toluene (75 ml) and the product was crystallized upon cooling. The product was filtered off, washed with cold toluene and cold heptane and dried (23.5 g; 57percent). BIP purity: 96.5 Norm percent. Levels of impurities found (Norm percent): Des-Bromo-BIP: 0.85percent; OH-BIP: 0.56percent; Keto-BIP: 1.90percent.; Example 5Preparation of 5-Bromo-3-((R)-1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-indole (BIP)SDMA in toluene (70percent solution, 40 ml, 131.2 mmol), diluted with dry toluene (5 ml), was added to a stirred suspension of (R)-2-(5-Bromo-1H-indole-3-carbonyl)pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic acid benzyl ester (12 g, 28.1 mmol) in dry toluene (70 ml) at 30-40° C. during 10 min. The temperature was raised to 48° C. and the resulting yellow solution was stirred for 2.5 h. The reaction was cooled to 15° C. and 5percent aqueous NaOH (60 ml) was added dropwise while the temperature was maintained between 15-20° C. The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously for additional 60 min at 20° C. Crude BIP purity: 72.36 Norm percent. Levels of impurities found (Norm percent): Benzyl alcohol: 21.50percent; Des-Bromo-BIP: 2.16percent; OH-BIP: 0.47percent; Keto-BIP: 2.14percent.
47%
Stage #1: With lithium aluminium tetrahydride In tetrahydrofuran at 20℃; for 39 h; Heating / reflux
Stage #2: With sodium hydroxide; water In tetrahydrofuran for 0.5 h;
Example 9
Preparation of 5-Bromo-3-((R)-1-methyl-pyrrolidin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-indole (BIP) according to U.S. Pat. No. 5,545,644, example 27
A solution of (R)-2-(5-Bromo-1H-indole-3-carbonyl)-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic acid benzyl ester (BIPCAM) (3.64 g, 8.55 mmol) in dry THF (70 ml) was added drop-wise to a stirred suspension of lithium aluminium hydride (0.945 g, 24.9 mmol) in dry THF (52.5 ml) at room temperature under an atmosphere of dry nitrogen.
The mixture was heated under reflux with stirring for 18 h and then cooled.
Additional lithium aluminium hydride (175 mg, 4.61 mmol) was added and refluxing was continued for an additional 3 h.
The mixture was again cooled, lithium aluminium hydride (140 mg, 3.69 mmol) was added, and refluxing was continued for a further 18 h.
The mixture was cooled and H2O (1.54 ml) was carefully added with stirring, followed by 20percent aqueous NaOH (1.54 ml), followed by more H2O (4.66 ml).
The mixture was stirred for 30 min, then diluted with ethyl acetate (50 ml) and filtered through Celite.
The filtrate was washed with H2O (50 ml), brine (50 ml) and then dried with Na2SO4.
Evaporation of the solvent gave an oil (3.6 g) which was chromatographed on silica gel, eluted with dichloromethane/ethanol/conc. aqueous ammonia (90:10:0.5) to obtain the title compound (1.18 g, 47percent) as a light yellow oil
The product precipitated from dichloromethane/hexane (920 mg, 37percent).
Reference: [1] Patent: US2008/319205, 2008, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 5
[2] Patent: US2008/319205, 2008, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 6
  • 139
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 168268-00-6 ]
Reference: [1] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2016, vol. 24, # 16, p. 3353 - 3358
[2] Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2017, vol. 25, # 24, p. 6674 - 6679
[3] Patent: CN108069919, 2018, A,
[4] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2018, vol. 158, p. 814 - 831
  • 140
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 3863-11-4 ]
  • [ 168268-00-6 ]
Reference: [1] European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2012, # 36, p. 7048 - 7052
  • 141
  • [ 23761-23-1 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 130369-36-7 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
50%
Stage #1: With diphenylphosphoranyl azide; N-ethyl-N,N-diisopropylamine In toluene at 60℃; for 3 h; Inert atmosphere
Stage #2: at 60℃;
Compound 8: l-(3-((((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4- dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl)(methyl)amino)cyclobutyl)-3-(4-(tert- butyl)phenyl)ureaBenzyl (3-oxocyclobutyl)carbamate[0665] To a solution of 3-oxocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (1.0 g, 8.77 mmol) and DIEA (1.92 g, 14.92 mmol) in toluene (8 mL) was added DPPA (2.89 g, 10.52 mmol) at rt. The mixture was heated to 60 °C under Argon for 3 h, then benzyl alcohol (1.14 g, 10.52 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 60 °C overnight. The reaction was concentrated, the residue was purified by SGC (PE : EA = 8 : 1) to afford the desired compound (240 mg, yield 50percent). 1H NMR (500MHz, CDC13): δΗ 7.38-7.33 (m, 5H), 5.12 (d, / = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 4.34-4.33 (brs, 1 H), 3.44-3.39 (m, 2H), 3.10-3.07 (brs, 2H) ppm; ESI-MS (m/z): 220.2 [M+l]+.
25%
Stage #1: With diphenyl phosphoryl azide; triethylamine In toluene at 60℃; for 3 h;
Stage #2: at 60℃; for 3 h;
Step A: (3-Oxo-cyclobutyl)-carbamic acid benzyl ester. A solution of 3-Oxo- cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (1.01 g, 8.8 mmol) and Et3N (1.5ml, 10.5mmol) in THF/Toluene (1: 1, 30ml) was treated with DPPA (1.9 ml, 8.8 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 3 hours at 60°C and then BnOH (1 ml, 9.7mmol) added. The reaction mixture was stirred for another 3 hours at the same temperature. The resulting mixture was concentrated under vacuum to remove most THF and then diluted with EtOAc (50 20 ml). This so-obtained mixture was washed with saturated NaHC03 solution, brine, dried over Na2S04 and filtered. The solvent was evaporated and the residue was purified via chromatography eluted with PE/EtOAc (4: 1) to give the desired product as a white solid (yield: 0.48g, 25percent yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.12 (m, 3H), 4.33 (m, 1H), 3.41 (m, 2H), 3.07 (m, 2H).
Reference: [1] Patent: WO2012/75381, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 210
[2] Patent: WO2012/9678, 2012, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 210
[3] Patent: EP1256578, 2002, A1, . Location in patent: Page 22
[4] Patent: WO2014/74421, 2014, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 56; 57
  • 142
  • [ 348-61-8 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 1036724-54-5 ]
  • [ 133057-82-6 ]
Reference: [1] Tetrahedron Letters, 2008, vol. 49, # 31, p. 4588 - 4590
  • 143
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 1000896-40-1 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
6%
Stage #1: With di-isopropyl azodicarboxylate; triphenylphosphine In dichloromethane at 10 - 15℃; for 0.666667 h;
Stage #2: at 5 - 25℃; for 61 h;
5-benzyloxy-1H-pyrazol-3-amine, used as starting material, was obtained as follows: i) A solution of 5-amino-2H-pyrazol-3-ol (6.0 g, 60.6 mmol) was stirred in dichloromethane (75 ml). Triphenylphosphine (19.06 g, 72.7 mmol) was added and the mixture was then cooled to 5-10mC. Di-iso-propylazodicarboxylate (14.31 ml, 72.7 mmol) was added dropwise over a period of 20 minutes, maintaining the internal temperature <15° C. The mixture was then held at 10° C. for a further 20 minutes. Benzyl alcohol (7.52 ml, 72.7 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture stirred at 5-10C for 1 hour and then allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred under nitrogen for 60 hours. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was then extracted with 1 M hydrochloric acid (3.x.) and the combined extracts washed with dichloromethane (1 5 ml). The aqueous phase was basified with sodium bicarbonate (6.7 g) and the mixture was then extracted with dichloromethane (2.x.40 ml). The combined organic extracts were evaporated to leave a brown oil which was purified by chromatography on silica eluting with a mixture of 0-3percent methanol in dichloromethane. The fractions containing product were combined and then evaporated to leave 5-benzyloxy-1H-pyrazol-3-amine (0.67 g, 6percent yield). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): 5.05 (s, 1H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 7.25-7.45 (m, 5H).MS: m/z 190 (MH+).; 5-Phenylmethoxy-2H-pyrazol-3-amine (also named as 5-benzyloxy-1H-pyrazol-3-amine), used as starting material was prepared as in Example 72.
Reference: [1] Patent: US2008/4302, 2008, A1, . Location in patent: Page/Page column 96; 105
  • 144
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 477889-91-1 ]
  • [ 1083329-33-2 ]
Reference: [1] Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2008, vol. 73, # 23, p. 9326 - 9333
[2] Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2009, vol. 7, # 24, p. 5103 - 5112
  • 145
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 1229006-21-6 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: EP2602260, 2013, A1,
  • 146
  • [ 6120-95-2 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 1324000-40-9 ]
Reference: [1] Synthesis, 2011, # 9, p. 1477 - 1483
  • 147
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 1246616-66-9 ]
Reference: [1] Patent: US2012/22251, 2012, A1,
[2] Patent: EP2602260, 2013, A1,
[3] Patent: CN108101838, 2018, A,
  • 148
  • [ 26452-80-2 ]
  • [ 100-51-6 ]
  • [ 1006052-55-6 ]
YieldReaction ConditionsOperation in experiment
87%
Stage #1: With potassium hydride In tetrahydrofuran at 0℃; for 1 h; Inert atmosphere
Stage #2: at 20℃; for 18 h; Inert atmosphere
A suspension of KH (1.08 g, 27 mmol) in dry THF (80 mL) at 0 °C under N2, was treated with benzyl alcohol (1.7 mL, 16.2 mmol) and stirred for 1 h. Then, a solution of 2,4-dichloropyridine 5 (1.5 mL, 13.5 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated NH4Cl (20 mL) and the organic solvent was removed in vacuo. The product was extracted from the residual aqueous layer with CH2Cl2 (3 x 50 mL), and the combined organic phases were dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (light petroleum/Et2O 8:2) to yield compound 7 as a pale yellow oil (2.58 g, 87percent); Rf = 0.56 (light petroleum/Et2O 8:2). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 5.46 (s, 2H), 6.87-6.89 (m, 2H), 7.33-7.52 (m, 5H), 8.09 (dd, 1H, J = 4.7, 1.8 Hz).
Reference: [1] European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2013, vol. 64, p. 23 - 34
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